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2019 Four Seasons Gardening Webinar – Landscape Invasives

[…] My name is Kelly
Allsup and I work as a horticulture educator for Livingston McLean and
Woodford counties. I am based out of Bloomington. My background training was
in greenhouse integrated pest management where, while working in the greenhouse, I
fell in love with releasing beneficial insects. And if you’ve heard me speak
before, you know I have a great fondness towards all things creepy-crawly. Now that I teach about my passion, insects, I have learned more and more
about endangered insects in the Illinois environment, whether they are the Karner
blue a small but vividly blue butterfly whose larvae feed on the lupine, or the
rusty patch bumblebee once believed to complete be completely extinct from the
state, I now am learning more and more about how these insects are impacted by
people and the plant communities we grow. If you say invasive species in the
natural areas of Illinois don’t have a huge impact on our beloved butterflies
and bees, then you are not seeing the big picture. Invasive plants out-compete and
displace native plants that these Illinois insects need for survival. Have
you ever walked up to someone’s front door and said “excuse me, but did you know
that you have an invasive species growing in your front yard? Could you
take care of that for me? Or allow me?” Or have you ever been talking with someone
and they say “I grow an invasive species in my front yard,” say, purple loosestrife
and I have never seen it get out of control you hold back the eye roll
because no one is ever going to listen to you if you’re a know-it-all.
But then you have to explain. One adult purple loosestrife plant can produce 2.5
to 2.7 million seeds annually. These seeds are easily dispersed and
transported by water, wind, bird feathers, animal fur, and us, of course. Although the that plant does not… [has] maybe
not popped up in your yard, those millions of seeds are going somewhere.
So, you’ve made your point. But have you convinced the homeowner to
pull up the purple loosestrife? Probably not, because they’re really pretty. Next
time, look them firmly in the eye and say “you are killing butterflies!” I mean, who
hates butterflies? In this talk, I wanted to give you some plant choices
while you are convincing others to grow native alternatives rather than a
landscape invasive. Like I said, invasive species are among the leading threats to
wildlife. Approximately 42% of threatened or endangered species are at risk due to
invasive species. An invasive species can be any kind of living organism: a
plant, an insect, like emerald ash borer, a fish like Asian carp, which is the number
one invasive in invasive species for the United States, a fungus, a bacteria, or even organisms, seeds, or eggs that is NOT native to an ecosystem and
can cause harm. Just because they are not native, from Illinois, does not mean they are
invasive. They must cause harm to the environment, the economy, or humans.
Species that grow and reproduce quickly and spread aggressively with potential
to cause this harm are then labeled “invasive.” For instance, Colorado blue
spruce is not from here, but it is not invasive. Clearly not invasive, or we
would not have so many homeowners having problems with growing this plant. Just so
you know, they suffer most of all during wet springs, as they do not like their
roots to be underwater; they require well-drained soil, which can
be a feat in the Illinois environment. Invasive plants harm the ecosystem by
out-competing the native plants, reducing nesting sites for birds, or possibly
confusing birds, reducing habitat for other wildlife, or even serving as an
alternate host for a disease. Invasive plants do stuff to out-compete the
native vegetation by leafing out earlier, shading germinating seeds, adapting to a
multitude of growing conditions, or being prolific seeders, which in turn make them
easy to grow. Here, you see the map of Illinois, and in all the shaded green
counties have been confirmed sightings of an invasive species known as kudzu. If
you’ve ever been in the southern part of the United States, kudzu is an extremely
aggressive invasive species, and has been known to take over trees, cars, landscapes,
houses… However, has not been seen just yet to be that aggressive in Illinois. I just wanted to point out that in my talk today I am mostly talking about plants
that are on the official invasive species list; however, I will touch on a
species of concern. It has not made the list but it has proven to be
invasive in other parts of the country, and therefore care should be taken to
monitor this plant. And it’s growing really should be discouraged until
scientists know more. With thousands… hundreds of thousands
of types of plants to grow in the world, why then do we grow just a few? Simply because they
are easy to grow in the landscape or garden? Or they’re the ones available in the garden
centers? The plants are usually from a different part of the world and
introduced as an ornamental to the landscape. Most of the time growers and
gardeners alike may unknowingly be selling these plants or growing them in
your yards. My first landscape invasive is burning bush.
In my experience, this bush tends to be placed in a dirty hedge along the home, or at
a corner of a lot to preserve the lot line. It is mostly ignored most of the
year unless you are trying to get rid of it and cutting it back to the ground,
which really only rejuvenates it and makes it bushier. Then in the late summer
to early fall the leaves start to tinge red, and then it glows and homeowners
remember “Oh! That is why I have that plant!” Despite its unassuming nature most of
the year, burning bush forms dense thickets in the undergrowth of forests and
displaces native plants. It invades disturbed habitats, fields, road sites, but
also undisturbed woods. Birds disperse the fruit, allowing the plant free-range.
Unfortunately, you could most likely walk into any garden center
and find this plant for sale. Instead, I think you should plant Blackhaw
viburnum. It grows a bit taller, up to 12 feet, and it has a shiny to dull red
fall color, attractive white blooms from April to May, and boasts colorful droops.
Burning bush may have a more vibrant fall color, but it does not even come
close to competing with the floral and fruit display of this plant. Easily grown
an average well-drained soil in the full sun to part-shade, it can tolerate
some drought. Care for this plant is pruning it immediately after flowering since the flower buds form in the summer for the following year. It can be grown
as a multi stem shrub or tree. Caterpillars of the Spring Azure
butterfly, seen here on the left, will sometimes feed on the flowers. The
caterpillars common hues are green and cream. The caterpillars of the Baltimore
butterfly occasionally feed on the leaves. The Baltimore butterfly is a
chocolate-brown butterfly with a lovely pattern of orange and white dots. The
caterpillar is orange with black spiky protrusions. Pictured on the right are
the droops and the red fall color. The blue-black droops are quite attractive
to wildlife: birds, chipmunks, squirrels, and white-footed mouse will eat them.
Even YOU can eat them once they are ripe. When in flower, viburnum feeds bees,
butterflies, flies, skippers, and our beloved hummingbird moth. These small
mysterious pollinators can be seen visiting flowers throughout the
summer and fall in order to sip nectar. They beat their wings as fast as a
hummingbird, but are smaller, and they stick out their very long tongue to
gather nectar like a butterfly. However, they remain hovering over the flower. In
the fall months hummingbird moths are numerous and come out close to dusk. We
have 60 species of Sphinx moth and the most common ones are white-lined Sphinx moth, seen here, clear winged sphinx moth, five-spotted hawk moth, and
Carolina Sphinx. The color of the white line Sphynx moth is mottled gray, brown,
and white with pink bands. The clear wings Sphynx moth is a large moth with
clear wings that mimics a bee. However, cherished as adults, the five-spotted
hawk moth also known as tomato hornworm and carolina Sphynx also known as
tobacco hornworm incite murderous rage in their larval
stage to any gardener trying to grow tomatoes. Here is another alternative to
burning bush. It is shorter than your black Haw viburnum. And although not
native to Illinois, it is native to the southeastern part of the United States,
and it is one of my favorite garden plants. Best grown and moist, acidic,
organically rich and well-drained soils in full-Sun to part shade. It actually
flowers better the more Sun it is in, but plants do appreciate some afternoon
shade in the hot dry summer climate of Illinois. You cannot grow fothergilla in
heavy soils like you could a burning bush, however take this time to amend
your soil by adding a mix of plant- and animal-based organic matter. Fothergilla blooms small, fragrant
bottlebrush flowers in April that cover the plants before the leaves appear,
making it quite a show. Leaves turn an often brilliant shade of yellow, orange,
and red in the fall, sure to rival any burning bush. Although not as fast
growing as a burning bush, this plant is worth the wait for the many attributes
it gives to the landscape. I don’t really have to identify this plant. Most of you
know what it is. It is callary pear. In the words of former state Master
Gardener coordinator, Sandy Mason, “Bradford callary pear has a nasty habit
of crashing just as they reach their” “glory at 15 to 20 years old. Its
branching habit is to blame. The tree” “develops weakly attached branches with
narrow crotch angles, plus there are” “usually six to eight branches coming
from the same point on the trunk.” “They look like upside down umbrellas.
Often, large limbs are lost in wind or” “ice storms, but can also fall on a calm
day. Typically, limbs rip down the trunk” “and give the tree a very unsymmetrical
look. The trees are doomed to a pruning” “cut at the ground level.”
Ahh… I couldn’t have said it any better While these trees are attractive in
bloom during the springtime, that is their only redeemable quality. In fact,
they are considered invasive plants in both Illinois and the eastern half of
North America. If you drive on the highways in the spring time, you will see
multiple white blooming trees. New cultivars to address the poor branching
habit described by Sandy are hybridized to produce sterile fruit, produce a
hybrid with native ornamental pears and produce
fertile fruits. Unlike the sterile fruit of Bradford.
Here’s the Bradford callary pear, the bad branch angles, and then
along the roadsides. Instead of callary pear, plant downy service berry, also
known as amelachier arborea. It is a multi stemmed shrub or small
tree that grows 15 to 25 feet tall. It is the most common service berry species in
the state. Like ornamental pear, it is tolerant of a wide range of soils. Although ornamental pear flowers before
the leaves emerge, and is reminiscent of a white cloud, according to Derr… Michael
Derr, tree expert…. downy service berry blooms when the leaves emerge, making
the trees slightly less effective, but ornamental in its own right. It blooms in
April about the same time as ornamental pear, and the flowers are highly sought
out by bees, flies, and beetles. The leaves emerge with a grayish pubescent, turn
medium to dark green in the summer, and then the fall turn yellow apricot orange
to dusty red. Considering the leaves are not as glossy
as the callary pear, the color may not be as vibrant, but by no means less
impressive as seen in this picture. Downy serviceberry is one of the best native
trees for fall color. The berry-like pommes is why you’re growing this tree.
They are far more ornamental and attractive to wildlife than the brown
pomme of the calorie pair. They start off as green, turn red, then when they are
ripe, a purplish black. The birds will celebrate in your yard when they see
this buffet of sweet berries that are reminiscent of blueberries. Ruffed grouse,
hairy woodpecker, hermit thrush, cedar waxwing, Baltimore Oriole, and many others
relish eating the berries. However, once you try them, you may be in competition
with them too. Amelanchier is a larval food source for striped hairstreak butterfly,
and the red spotted purple butterfly seen here. Along with many other moth
caterpillars like the dagger moth. Red spotted purple is not purple, and not
spotted red. It is 2 and a half to 4 inches wide with black on the upper wing
and iridescent blue on the hind wing. On the underside there’s rows of orange
spots along the edge of the wings with more orange spots near the body. The
adult butterflies feed on sap, rotting fruit, carrion dung, and will be attracted
to moist gravel patches. The caterpillar on the amelachier tree resembles bird
poop and over-winters in a hibernaculum. A hibernaculum is a leaf rolled
up and used to protect the caterpillar throughout the winter months. More garden-friendly hybrid is Amelanchier x grandiflora. This one’s best grown in well-drained soil with supplemental
watering during drought. Can be grown in full Sun to part shade. Amelanchier x grandiflora is a hybrid cross between the native service berry, downy service
berry we talked about before, and Allegheny service berry.
This is a small multi trunked tree or tall shrub, and can grow fifteen to
twenty feet tall. It flowers in April followed by the edible fruits in June.
These fruits will also make the birds love your backyard. Then the leaves turn
a brilliant red to orange-red in the fall, ready to rival any ornamental pear.
Barbary. To a horticulturist Barbary is boring, but easy to grow and the
cultivars come in a multitude of amazing colors. Its adaptability makes it a go-to
for landscapers and homeowners, but if I see another Barbary spirea combination, I
am going to wonder where is our creativity. This shrub has started
invading shady woodlands, open fields, and wetlands. The bright red fruits are
rapidly spread by birds. It outcompetes by leafing out earlier in the spring
causing it to shade native plants. Instead of growing barberry, grow, I
propose, replacing boring and bullying of a shrub, which is Barbary, I propose
growing black chokeberry aronia melanocarpa, which blooms in late spring it also
produces numerous black leathery fruits that persist into the winter and glossy
green leaves that provide an outstanding fall color. Although the habit is not as
dense and neat as the barberry, the shrub can be pruned after flowering to keep it
more compact. The shrub is also known to produce sucker, so pruning out the older
Canes is recommended. You prune plants in the late winter or early
spring before bud break. You can also do a rejuvenation pruning, which means
pruning all the way to the ground to just a few inches. This method will take
the plant out of fruit production for just a few years. Aronia berries can be
eaten fresh right off the bush, though they can be a little bit astringent,
which is why most people cook with them instead. There are some varieties that
have been selected for less suckering, more compact growth, and improved yields
and fall color. For instance, Autumn Magic has a more compact habit, more brilliant
fall color, and larger more abundant fruit clusters. Aariety ‘Alotta’ has a more
brilliant fall color, larger abundant fruit colors, but also exhibits reduced
suckering. Because the leaves are glossy the fall color is impressive. Fall color
can be wine red to purplish black, although they do not exhibit the
colorful leaves throughout the entire year, they do have a nice fall color and
fruits that attract a plethora of wild life. Bees visit the
flowers, birds like the fruits, and caterpillars can eat the foliage. One of
those such bees is an andrenid bee, also known as a mining bee.
It’s a native bee that will be attracted to the flowers of black chokeberry. These
bees nest in the underground. Even though they are solitary, their nests can be
found in large groups in your lawn. It’s usually a very thin lawn.
These bees are good foragers of pollen and nectar on early flowering plants, so
if you see a bunch of holes in the lawn and bees coming out of it it’s a good
bee it’s a pollinator. Winter creeper is a vigorous evergreen invader that accepts
many growing conditions, which has made it a go-to ground cover for homeowners.
You can commonly see it creeping up a tree. It displaces native plants in
forest openings and forest edges. It is fast growing and tolerates a full Sun to
full shade–not many very many plants can do that. Instead of planting winter
creeper, plant wild ginger. It IS a low-maintenance ground cover, boasting
attractive heart-shaped leaves that can be grown in partial shade to full shaded
conditions. From April to May they bloom this purplish Brown cup-shaped flower
that is usually hidden under the foliage but is always a great find. Beetles and
flies visit the blooms in early spring. The flower has evolved to attract small
pollinating flies that emerge from the ground early in the spring looking for a
dead animal carcass that did not survive the winter. By lying next to the ground,
flowers are readily found by the flies emerging from their pupa.
The color of the flower is similar to decomposing flesh. Whether these flies
pollinate the flower or not is in dispute. Nevertheless, they do enter the
flower to escape the cold winds in early spring, and to feast upon the flower’s
pollen. Some of the pollen attaches to their bodies and is taken with them
when they visit the next flower. Although it’s slower in getting established
compared to euonymus, it forms dense thick habit, spreading by rhizomes whose
textures can rival the colors of your winter creeper. The leaves of wild ginger
is an alternate host plant for the beautiful pipevine Swallowtail butterfly.
Its caterpillars are brownish black with a row of orange spots down their back.
Although not evergreen, it Leafs out really early in the spring. Hover flies is one of the insects that will pollinate or potentially pollinate
wild ginger, and they are likely buzzing about any nectar producing flower in
your garden this summer, and they live their life amongst the
wild ginger this past spring these flies, commonly mistaken for bees, are one of
the most prolific pollinators in the Illinois garden. Hover flies are
excellent fliers, flying backwards and forwards and hovering over their beloved
flowers. Hover flies are yellow and black bee mimics that feed on pollen, nectar,
and honeydew. Honeydew is aphid poop. They mimic bees and wasps for protection
against their predators such as birds. They can be easily distinguished
from bees because they are shiny, and bees are fuzzy.
They have much larger eyes. With many generations per growing season, hover
flies are here to stay. The female Hover fly will usually lay
her eggs near or amongst aphid colonies, and in two to three days the larvae will
hatch. The larvae, which is technically a maggot, is muted green, legless, worm-like,
and can be found on the under-sides of leaves eating aphids,
thrips, scale, caterpillars, and mealy bugs.
The larvae grasp the prey with their jaws, hold them up in the air, suck out
the body contents, and toss the exoskeleton aside. Who wouldn’t want this
great garden warrior / pollinator in their garden?
My next invasive is shrubby bush clover. It is an aggressive invader that
displaces native vegetation and was originally planted on purpose for
wildlife vegetation and erosion control. Growing about six foot tall,
exhibits trifoliate leaves, and a loosely held branches. It’s fast-growing. It
flowers in July to August, and is a readily self-seeder. Instead of shrubby
bush clover, plant elderberry. This elderberry has large, white, lace-inspired
flowers, and they’re popping up along the roadside on shrubs all over Illinois. And
they are one of this horticulturist’s favorite specimen plants. Easy to grow in
full Sun to partial shade, this plant can grow four to twelve feet tall and has a
long four-week bloom time in mid-summer. That is far showier
and more fragrant than any bush clover. The flowers are followed by purplish
black droops that are loved by many birds. The flowers attract bees, flies,
and butterflies. These plants are spread by root-suckers to form
colonies. Plants can be kept in check by pruning suckers as they appear, or pruning in the winter. Whether you prune out the dead stems, or you shorten
one-year stems, cutting back one year stems to a node, or cut back to the
ground with rejuvenation cutting, if you do not prune elderberries, sometimes they
can become unattractive and weedy in appearance. And they are a bit more
short-lived compared to the bush clover. Although plants are self pollinated
fruit yields can be increased by planting more than one cultivar together.
The fruits are purple black appearing in August, and are loved by birds. This plant is
a showstopper. Another native alternative to Bush clover is highbush
blueberry, and it is recommended by most horticulturist here in Illinois as
opposed to regular blueberries because it is easier to grow in our soil. It
grows between 6 to 12 feet high on upright multi-stemmed shrub in full Sun
to part-shade. Like blueberries this plant does prefer more acidic
organically rich soils, and benefits greatly from mulching around the base to
preserve moisture. The flowers are white, urn-shaped. They’re born in May
for about two weeks before the leaves start to unfold. They’re a great early
nectar and pollen source for overwintering bees. The berries then
mature in August, and are bluish black with a white bloom. This bloom
is the white stuff you rub off in your fingers that acts as a sunscreen for the
plant. Derr says two to three plants can provide several quarts of blueberries,
and as an added bonus this plant has excellent red fall color, lacking the
dingy yellow color of the bush clover. There are many hybrids of this
plant and although flowers are self- fertile, it is best to allow
cross-pollination for a larger crop yield. Chinese privet. Primarily used as a
hedge, this evergreen can grow in full Sun to partial shade.
It has creamy white fragrant flowers in August, and it is tolerant of a wide range of conditions, all contributing to its invasive qualities. Plants form dense
thickets and shade out other native plants. The showy fruits persist and are
distributed to natural areas by birds. Two other species: European privet and
border privet are showing the same aggressive tendencies as Chinese
privet. It can be quite difficult to distinguish between these species;
however, rather rather than planting privet, plant high-bush cranberry viburnum. [long pause] This native alternative to privet can
also be used as a hedge or a shrub border that grows in full Sun to light
shade, about eight to ten feet high. In April these white lace-cap panicles
cover the plant for about four weeks, followed by drooping clusters of red
berries in the fall that persist into the winter. The leaves are glossy green,
changing to a yellow red or reddish purple. This plant is adaptable to
extremes. American hi bush cranberry is one of the easiest viburnums to
grow, and be can be kept in check with pruning after flowering. Bees, flies, and
beetles visit the flowers, and birds eat the fruits. This shrub provides all the
attributes that privet hedge can provide without the risk of invading natural
areas. Another alternative to privet is winter berry. It grows in partial Sun and
moist to acidic soils. Although the flowers are insignificant, the showy
fruits during the winter provide interest like no other. The greenish
white flowers are visited by bees and flies in the mid summer. Winter berries
are diecious, which means they have separate male and female plants. Only
fertilized female flowers will produce these attractive red berries that are a
signature to the species. Generally only one winter berry will be sufficient to
pollinate six to ten female plants. Flowers appear on new growth. Prune to
shape an early spring just before new growth appears. The red berries
are highly sought out by songbirds. Everybody loves this evergreen
ground cover. “It’s so pretty,” they say. It is super easy to grow and get
established; however, in Illinois, the only acceptable ivy is in
the silk flower area of your local craft store, as this pretty vine is a tree
killer. English ivy aggressively climbs trees, eventually killing them. It covers
the ground floor, choking out all that’s in its path. Its fruits are readily
spread by birds and it serves as an alternative host to bacterial leaf
scorch, which affects a wide variety of our Illinois trees. Rather than English
ivy, plant barren strawberry instead. Barren strawberry is also evergreen in
mild winters. It produces yellow blooms in the spring, followed by small
strawberry-looking, inedible achenes. It adapts to a wide range of soils. I have
allowed this plant to take over my backyard on the edge of beds and between
stepping stones. Everyone always asked me if the berries are edible and I say yes
but they’re not good at all. I have seen several bees and flies on the
flower, and I’m looking forward to it helping me keep the other weeds at bay. One of the weeds I must keep at bay is
sweet autumn clematis, a breathtaking bloomer in the fall, this plant is
aggressive and fast-growing and easily invades natural areas, unkempt landscapes,
and pops up all over my backyard and my neighbor’s yard. After bloom, the seeds
waft like feathers around through the air, so rather than sweet autumn clematis, plant Woodbine. It is a climbing vine that has fragrant
white flowers similar to sweet autumn clematis in the late summer to early
fall. It can be planted in full Sun to partial shade, and if given support will
climb the way the clematis does. Bees, wasp, and flies are attracted to the
flower, and some moth caterpillars eat the foliage. It can be pruned back to a node
where the leaf meets the stem in the fall after flowering. It lacks the tough
leathery leaves of sweet autumn clematis. It supports wasp and bees. Most of us
know that honey bee is an economically important insect, because of its
pollination services it provides; however, some of the native bees, particularly
mason bees, don’t get the credit they deserve for contributions they make to
our garden and food crops. Unlike non-native bees… unlike the
non-native honey bees, the majority of native bees are solitary, living in the
ground or hollowed out stems, and are unlikely to sting because they did not
have the need to defend the social colony. An understanding of the lifecycle
of some of these solitary bees will help you in your pollinator garden. One such
good bee… solitary bee… is a leafcutter bee, and it is usually black or grey, smaller
than the honey bee, which is amber colored. These bees construct their nest
in existing hollow cavities found in nature, or may excavate a hole in a
rotten log or twig. The females construct a series of cells
using oval to semicircular pieces of leaf tissue to separate her
chambers. Most of the time, damage is not noticed, but these leaf cutting bees
prefer rose, lilac, ash, sassafras, Virginia keeper.
She then leaves a mix of pollen and nectar paste as a provision for her
growing larva. Marla Spivak, a bee researcher at the University of
Minnesota, says “honeybees get all the hype, but it just may be the little green
bee pollinating our flowers that may be the most important.” Thor Hansen, an
author about bees, said bees are like oxygen: essential, and for the most part
unseen. While we might overlook them, they lie at the heart of relationships that
bind the humans to natural worlds. It is also assumed flowering
plants co-evolved rapidly with bees pollinating them, a notion Darwin never
believed, says Thor. Darwin believed flowering plants existed all along and
just spread rapidly, bees evolved from wasps and began to get their food from
flowers instead of various forms of other insects in the environment.
Although wasps need meat to feed their larvae, which is why they sting, they
continued to be great pollinators of flowers in their adult form. Thor says
if a flower is not rounded, it’s probably not pollinated by a bee.
I love Virginia Creeper. It’s a woody vine, turns scarlet red or burgundy in the
fall. It has these blue violet berries, and again, like I said earlier, is used by
leaf cutting bees to build their nest. Circles [cut] out of the foliage is an
exciting find. This plant likes partial Sun but will tolerate full Sun and
partial shade. Another vine that should be planted instead of sweet autumn
clematis is trumpet honeysuckle. Although it is not a
native to Illinois, but southeastern United States, does fine, is a longtime
bloomer of scarlet orange flowers that are visited by not only bees in the
early spring, but ruby-throated hummingbirds. And the foliage can be
eaten by clear wing moth caterpillars, while the red berries are eaten by birds
in the fall. This vine is very easy to grow. This next plant, butterfly Bush, is a species of concern, despite many seeing
bees and butterflies visiting the flowers of this prolific plant, it has
become a prolific invader of the Northeast and specifically the North West. It
forms dense thickets that are hard to remove, and it actually takes over native
plants as nectar sources for pollinators, which then in turn reduces pollination
of the native plants. Most people believe it is a great plant to have because it’s
usually covered in butterflies and bees, and it attracts pollinators; however, with
the possibility of escaping into our areas, and and potentially out-competing
our native plants, I would not suggest growing butterfly bush in the state of
Illinois. But instead, grow butterfly weed! It
blooms in the summer on two foot tall plants. It’s a larval source for monarch
caterpillars, its nectar supports a multitude of bees, flies, wasps, beetles,
and butterflies. In conclusion, this webinar is great for establishing new
landscapes, but most of you probably have some of these mature plants in your
garden and have grown quite fond of them for their ease and growth. So,
do I suggest removing them? I do. Our gardens are ever-changing, and these
landscape invasives should not be allowed to invade our natural areas. As a
gardener, it will be fun to start with a new plant. I myself recently bought a new
house. And the first thing I have done is remove these invasives. Although the
burning bush was difficult to get out of the ground, and the sweet autumn clematis
pops up everywhere, I continued to address these, and have great plans to
plant more of these native alternatives. Thank you. I did want to mention this QR
code. You can go and take a survey about the talk today and give us
feedback. We promise to use it and make our programs better for the future.

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