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| Agriculture And Animal Husbandry Introduction | Part 1 – Environmental Science



welcome to ATP diya Volcom in today's video we will learn about agriculture and animal husbandry so first we will talk about agriculture and how is the agriculture used as far as animal husbandry is concerned right so let's first talk about agriculture what is agriculture agriculture is a science or this practice of farming which includes cultivation of the soil for growing crops and rearing of animals to provide food and other products so agriculture involves cultivation of animals plants fungi biofuel and other medicinal plants so agriculture is important for us in order to sustain enhance life that is the human life so why is agriculture important it is required because we need nutrition it is important for human nutritional requirements so what happens when we don't get enough nutrition then it is called under nutrition this problem occurs when we don't get enough calories to eat right but this is a very less of a problem it is not that a major problem the major problem is malnutrition when that is then we don't get enough nutrients in our food like the vitamins and minerals the fats the carbohydrates so if we don't get these important nutrients in our food to our body then that is called malnutrition and it is a major problem right another major problem is obesity now obesity happens when we have when we have too much of calories which is given to our body then we become obese they become fat and that is another problem so the agriculture is giving us all those nutrients all those required calories which the human body needs in order to sustain and have a very good life and a very healthy life the role of Agriculture has been the same since ages now what happened with the growing population as the population increased we have industrial coming in we have globalization coming in and wilt initialisation but more and more of population increasing the requirement of food was also increasing there was the food was required and much larger quantity as compared to the growing population and therefore we had what is called as a green revolution and with the help of this green revolution that is why we had the concept of industrial agriculture coming in and this concept of industrial agriculture held us in increasing the amount of food that is required to feed the growing population the industrial agriculture has various you know methods and processes in order to provide food ok the first is the moon of cropping now what is mono cropping it is growing only one crop at a single time rather than having many crops only growing one crop at the same time is called mono cropping we also have irrigation then we have pesticides and these specifies target different things you know one is the you know herbicides and another one is the insecticides next we have is the fertilizers the fertilizer also of two types some of the fertilizers are organic fertilizers but the rest of the fertilizers are synthetic fertilizers so we have you know two types of fertilizers which we use in order to have good agriculture and these days we have the arrival of what is called as GMOs the genetically modified organisms this is like we introduce a bacteria or a kind of virus in a particular organism and we create a new organism which is called genetically created organism so that is why it's called genetically modified organisms and all these methods like the mono cropping the irrigation the pesticides the fertilizers and the GMOs all these helps us to create lot more food than we could create it from the conventional farming right these helps us to allow us to produce more food for the growing popular and that is why these are basically the solution for the growing population these are the solutions for the industrialization which is coming in but each of these processes and methods will have major drawbacks so we need to look at these drawbacks and then decide as to how to use these methods in a very clever way so now let's talk about the characteristics of all these methods and basically the characteristics of industrial agriculture one by one let's first talk about monocropping so what is mono cropping mono cropping is when you just plant one crop at the same time that's called mono cropping so mono cropping is the agricultural practice of growing a single crop year after year on the same land in the absence of rotation through other crops or growing multiple crops on the same land for example we have corn we have soybean and wheat these are the three most common crop that are often grown using the technique of mono cropping so what is really good about this mono cropping one thing which is good about the muna cropping in that the farmers become expert in growing that particular crop year after year because they are growing this crop every year so they become experts and they know what does a growing of a crop requires right one disadvantage is that mono cropping requires very very expensive machinery now what are some of the problems with them the dis mono cropping some of the problems are that we have soil erosion taking place and also we have loss of biodiversity and if we have rain the rain can actually wash away all that healthy nutrient which are there in the soil if the soil can get washed away because of water so that we have lot of soil erosion if we only grow one particular crop every year what can we do to reduce the soil erosion we could do what is known as the onto a plowing now now what is known as the contour plowing let's talk about these for example this is a corn and the corn is grown every year in the same land so that is what is new know cropping and this is how the water soil erosion that is the soil gets washed away because of because of rain and what is the solution for these there's the contour plowing so if we make contours like this then the rain won't be able to wash off this soil and the healthy nutrients in the soil will remain in that particular area right so that is what is known as the contour plowing and so we will not have soil erosion now next let's talk about irrigation right so what does irrigation irrigation is a method in which water is supplied to the plants at regular intervals for agriculture it is used to assist in the growing of Agriculture crop maintenance of landscapes and revegetation of disturbed soil in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall so basically irrigation helps us in plantation or in farming in those areas where it could not have done better the soil is not good where there is not much of rainfall right so in those areas we can do irrigation one major problem with irrigation which too much irrigation is salinization what is colonization we will talk about it what is the solution well the salinization is to use a salt tolerant crops now irrigation is using water in the areas in that particular land is called irrigation and what is the problem of irrigation is colonization so sanitation is basically you know when we have lot of salt in a particular land so what happens is if you have lot of salt and if you have the rain the rain will wash off the salt like you can see here the rain will wash off all this sword and the salt comes down if we take out the water when we use the water from the ground itself in this water which we are using for irrigation will again contain more of salt right and your after your when we keep using the same water from the underground sources the amount of the salt in the soil will keep on increasing so that is what is known as salinization how can we avoid salinization we can avoid salinization by using the salt resistant crops so what we could do to avoid salinization is first of all we can use a better quality of crops we can rotate the crops second is we can produce irrigation and use better methods of irrigation other solution is if we use different crops and crops which are salt tolerant then D this can also avoid the problem of salinization another major function of Agriculture that is the industrial agriculture is the use of pesticides now under pesticides we already talked about it that pesticides can be you know of two types one is the herbicides and one is a fungicide so they this is basically to kill any insects or anything which is which is harmful for our crop right so what is pesticides pesticides are substance meant for attracting seducing and then destroying any best they are a class of bio science basically and the most common use of pesticides is as a plant protection products also known as crop protection products which in general protect plants from damaging influences such as weeds fungi and insects so basically they kill all these insects and weeds that are present along with the crop and they are which are trying to harm the crop right now why are farmers using these pesticides that is the cause first of all they creep keep the crop unaffected by these waves and the insects and in fact the return is also quite high like for example for investment of let's say you know a rupee then they get four rupees in return so that they get their investment in return right this is an approximation that you know how the pesticides is being used sixty five persons of is is the insecticide 15% is fungicides and 15% is herbicides so this is the way this is the fraction in which are the pesticides are used what is the problem with the pesticide one major problem with the pesticide is the bioaccumulation so these chemicals are not going to go away anywhere these chemicals are going to build up in the food pyramid so what happens is now because the weeds are killed the insects are being killed but they are going to continue along with the crop so the crop will be eaten by some other insects you know and that insect will be eaten by some other animal and that's how when we eat this animal the same chemical is going to transfer from the plants to the animals and then from the animals to the human body so that's how these chemicals are gonna build up in the food chain and eventually enter the human body so that is one of the major problem another problem is resistance now when we spray pesticides what kind of pests are we killing we are killing the pests we are which are the least resistance so if you spray for the first time a lot of insects will be killed but thereafter in the second application you know few of them will survive and only a very few will be killed so what happens is the ones which are survived will now become resistance to that particular pesticide now let's see the third application of that pesticide few more will survive right and these are pests which have survived previously and even this time then they will become you know very strong and they are going to become your resistance to that particular pesticide so then what we are going to do is we have to try and apply some other pesticide which will be useful which can kill these pests now you can see this is another example to show you how the pesticide resistance you know develop over a period of time so you can see the first time the pest is eating the plant so for the first time when the pesticide is applied most of these mites will be killed now a few of the mites will be surviving over here what all the mites will be killed but most of them will be killed and a very few will survive now the few which have survived resistant to the to the pesticide and also what happens you see these mites are eventually they are decaying the leaf right now what happens the second time you apply the pesticide what happens few more will be surviving and the previously survived mites have already become resistance to that particular pesticide so look at the condition of leave it is again decayed and the pests which have survived have now become resistant so that is how a particular pest will become resistance to a particular pesticide so that is one problem that we face so bio accumulation and resistance to a particular pesticide are few disadvantage of you know are using the pesticide again and again so how do we solve this problem now look at this chart here in the chart I have shown here there is a population of the pest the growth of the pest and this is overfilled this is the time right now over a period of time population of the pest is going to go and thereafter it will become stable now in this area if you look at this area where the population is increasing it doesn't make any sense for us to apply pesticides you know a lot of pesticides because the numbers are large enough and why is that so because the population is still under control and it is increasing and have it is not gone over this economic injury levels so there is no point applying lot of pesticides in this stage so the farmer these days are actually keeping a close look on their crow that is they have to really study as to what kind of crop are they growing what kind of pesticide do they have to apply is the condition of the crop and the population of the best is in such stage that they need to really apply the pesticides or can they just do away with some kind of you know mechanical equipment or some mechanical process by which they can avoid these pests and can control the population of the pest so all these studies are being done by farmers these things under the integrated pest management so all this study comes under the what is known as the integrated pest management where in the device lot of other procedures in order to avoid in order to control the pest for example you know mechanically also the pest can be controlled by using these equipments which show some kind of rays which will avoid these pests to come close to the crop also there are other methods like you can use the lacewing larvae like as shown here which could kill this weed what is important for the farmers is to have a look at the condition of the crop and the population of the pest and to understand whether it's really required by them to apply so much of pesticide the application of large amount of pesticide will eventually you know affect the help of the humans so what is important to understand is whether the application of pesticides is really important and you know in the initial stage if it is not important so the pest can be avoided by these mechanical process or by using these equipments but in case we reach a stage where in the application of pestis then the application of pests are can be done in much clever ways so that it doesn't affect the health of the human beings now another application of the industrial agriculture is the use of fertilizers now the use of fertilizers helps in providing to the plants most important nutrients they need for example the nitrogen the phosphorus the sulfur into the soil so these nutrients are very very important for the growth and for the health of the plants so a fertilizer is any material of natural or synthetic origin that is applied to soil or to plant tissue usually it is applied to leaves so it is very very important for the growth of the plants so these fertilizers will be sprayed on the crop on the leaves and the plants are gonna go really healthy and very fast with a higher yield so this is the effect when we spray the fertilisers on the leaf this is how the leaf will start decaying now few problems with the application of fertilizers is it requires a lot of energy and fossil fuel and the major problem is runoff and how could we avoid it just by using just by having an inter cropping that is gee we have two or three crops which is grown at a time that is on a single land we have one or two crops that are grown alternatively so let's talk about the problems first so the problem as I said is runoff the rainwater is going to wash off all these fertilizers away and this can lead to a problem which is known as eutrophication now how can we solve this problem as I said intercropping where we can have two or three crops that are that is grown together for example we have the beans is grown along with the the corn so the two crops have been grown together so in this case the beans is providing the manual for the corn to grow so both the crops actually help each other to grow avoiding any such case of their own runs right so that is intercropping now let's move on to discussing the genetically modified organism what is GMOs the genetically modified organisms are organisms like the plants the animal or the microorganism in which the genetic material that is the dhih we have been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating or by natural recombination that means what we do is we take the DNA of one organism and we introduce that in the other organism and then this is how genetically a modified organism is obtained right to spread us with that organism is called genetically modified organism all right so we'll discuss more about the GMO so what is the but before discussing what is the problem with the genetically modified organism is loss in biodiversity so this is the genetically modified organism we have the tomatoes so on the left side you can see this is the organic tomato and this is a genetically modified organism you can see the color is different that is because it is genetically modified we have always been breeding your animals and plants and we have hybrid animals and plants but one example of this genetically modified organism can be Rudy's golden rice so we have been inserting the genes into the rice so that you know we get rice which is which has more of vitamin A why is it a big deal to introduce vitamin A in to price and generating what is called as the genetically modified rice is because over millions and millions of children under the age of five have vitamin A deficiency and so these such children can eat these genetically modified rice and can avoid any kind of you know vitamin A deficiency in them so another example can be this corn what we're doing here is that we are taking the genes from another bacteria and we are inserting in the corn so this is how we produce the genetically modified corn right so now most of those studies tells us that these genetically modified organisms are very very are not harmful to the human body however you know it depends on to country in the USA the people over there use lot of GMOs whereas in Europe we do not find so many people using the genetically modified organisms there is still lot of study going on behind it there is still lot of controversies behind whether the GMOs are good or the GMOs are not good for the human health so now that we have studied about you know the various characteristics of industrial agriculture so it's very important for us to understand why our wheat in today's world are moving from you know conventional agriculture to what is known as the alternative agriculture that is industrial agriculture or the alternative agriculture we have to use all these methods in order to have you know good and healthy crop production now if you look at the history that is in earlier times how the agriculture was done then these are some of the conventional way in which degree culture was done you know the this is how the farmers used to plow their field but what happens is with industrialization as the population increased with these conventional methods of farming and growing we were able to sustain the application we were able to grow the food in just a linear manner so you see this red area over here this is the way we wanted to produce the food because the population is increasing like this so we had to meet the food available for this population also but however we were not able to and the the food availability was just long this linear line so eventually what you have is this catastrophe with wherein we were not able to feed these many populations so then there came the Green Revolution and with the help of the Green Revolution now you see this is the graph of the population growth this is what we had initially that is the the population feed was like this so with the help of Green Revolution the graph instead of going you don't like this linear like this the graph went straight steep rise like this and therefore we were able to provide food for this rise in the population so we this Bangor just like Norman Borlaug and other farmers collectively you know brought the various methods of industrial agriculture what we just discussed and into action and because of that you know we were able to have the increase in the supply of our food so the amount of the crop that were produced every year increased because of this Green Revolution and because of these methods of industrial agriculture so what is important is to understand that there was a big shift from the conventional methods of farming or agriculture on to what is known as the industrial agriculture but now even if you know with various with with these various methods of industrial agriculture what we need is sustainable agriculture so that it does increase the crop productivity every year but however at the same time it should not you don't have any harmful effects on the human body or on our human health so I hope you have understood what is agriculture and what are the ways methods of you know industrial agriculture in the next video we will talk about animal husbandry and how agriculture is related to animal husbandry so thanks for watching a DVD of all videos

3 Comments

  1. pratap singh

    Yes it is sustainable agriculture that we require in today's changing world of industrialisation… Nicely flashed in the video. Thanks for such imp information.

    Reply

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