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(AV17309) Agricultural Research and Food Security in Africa

well welcome to the sixth annual Norman
E Borlaug lecture I’m Don bites in the department of animal science and
biochemistry and I’d like to welcome all of you to our special evening we have a
very spacial presentation for you but before we get into that I’d like to
introduce first of all once very special person and that’s ambassador Kenneth
Quinn he is president of the world food sound ation let’s all welcome ambassador
Quinn the unfortunately the for whom the lecture is named dr. Norman E Borlaug
Norman was not able to come tonight he is becoming weaker and so because of
Health he was unable to come after a full day in Des Moines today and he was
very sorry that he couldn’t be here anyone to extend greetings to all of you
all of you should know that tomorrow is Norman E Borlaug Day well actually
Norman E Borlaug World Food Prize day and that’s also true in the state of
Minnesota Minnesota and Iowa both claim Norman E Borlaug the rest of the country
it’s called the World Food Day without the name and I’m told that tomorrow is
also worldwide this is worldwide UN World Food Day so tomorrow is a very
special day related to food Norman E Borlaug World Food Day was named by our
Iowa Legislature and the only other day in Iowa named by the legislature was the
Herbert Hoover day and who knows what day of the year that’s on I’m not sure
doesn’t matter tonight so anyway tonight we have a very special guest for you and
the president of Iowa State University Gregory Joffe Joffrey will introduce our
speaker who has been president at Iowa State he’s in his seventh year so please
welcome president Joffrey to the podium please thanks Don and Pat I think we’re
going to need the microphone turned up a little bit if you have a way to control
the volume okay you’re all right good well I want to also welcome everyone to
tonight’s lecture this is a very special event for us every year and tonight is
is truly special we are honored to host this evening dr. Monty Jones as
tonight’s Norman Borlaug lecture as dr. bytes indicated this is part of the
World Food Prize week this lecture tonight is part of a series of events
and activities that are taking place around Iowa and in Des Moines all week
tomorrow the celebration of World Food Day and Norman E Borlaug Day and the
events tomorrow include the first I of a hunger summit in Des Moines a day of
hunger awareness events highlighted by a keynote address by David Beckmann
president of the Alliance to end hunger the presentation of the World Food Prize
on Thursday at the Iowa Capitol to the 2007 World Food Prize laureate dr.
Philip II Nelson a leader of modern food science and technology and on Thursday
and Friday of this week the World Food Prize Norman E Borlaug international
symposium that’s focusing on biofuels and biofuels our guest lecture tonight
dr. Monty Jones has provided a tremendous scientific and humanitarian
leadership to our world in the fight against poverty and hunger
dr. Jones serves as executive secretary the forum for agricultural research in
Africa a position that he’s held for the last five years he began his career with
the West Africa rice Development Agency and as head of its upland rice breeding
program he developed a new rice for Africa that was specifically bred for
ecological and agricultural conditions in Africa and he then worked to
distribute it to African villages and is credited with substantially increasing
the rice harvest and substantially reducing Africa’s need to import rice
this work and his continuing efforts in Africa
Linda is being honored with a 2004 World Food Prize and along the way many other
awards and recognitions including being named one of times Magazine’s 100 people
who shape our world in 2007 dr. Jones was born and educated in Sierra Leone he
received his bachelor’s degree from the University of Sierra Leone and then his
master’s and PhD in plant pathology from Birmingham University in the United
Kingdom and then in 2005 he received an honorary doctorate of science from
Birmingham we are truly pleased and honored to welcome dr. Jones as the 2007
Norman Borlaug lecture at Iowa State University please join me in welcoming
the 2004 World Food Prize laureate dr. Monty Jones President Greg Joffrey Joffrey ambassador Kenneth Queen
ladies and gentlemen actually it is a pleasure and an honor for me to be here
today to give the 6th Norman Borlaug lecture and I must stop this lecture by
saying that we’ve all been inspired by Norman Borlaug is done quite a lot for
the world you know in the area of Agriculture and agricultural development
and I personally believe that he steered the green revolution in Asia and in
Latin America and we in Africa believed that he will help to shape the
green revolution also in Africa so it is with great pleasure and honor that I
give this lecture in honor of Norman E Borlaug the topic that I have chosen to
discuss this evening is one that is related to Africa I am an African from
Africa and and I thought that it would be good to tell you what is happening in
Africa in the area of agricultural research and food security so my title
is agriculture research our food security in Africa and I would like to
start off by saying that agriculture is an important sector that is contributing
to the economies of several countries in Africa particularly those in sub-saharan
Africa and today agric agriculture contributes one-third of the total GDP
in Africa and at the same time it employs something like 70% of the
workforce you know in the continent so you see it’s a very important sector
a sector in which as high as 70% of the population and we’re talking of a
population of 800 million people that leaves in the rural area and their
livelihood and food security through agricultural activities agriculture open
up a range of opportunities for example if you look at the continent which is
the second largest in the world you know it has got very huge land mass
agricultural land provide the necessary conditions for famine and at the same
time it provides environmental services it’s a country that is growing at a very
fast rate at 3% we have the highest population growth compared to other
regions of the world you know and cause increase in population means increasing
demand for food and we can get that food through agricultural activities again in
Africa there is increasing awareness of the potential of improved technologies
in terms of boosting agricultural production and eventually agricultural
productivity if you take a look at the world look at a global picture we find
out that agriculture is growing at a rate of two percent globally and
population is growing at the rate of 1.6% and basically what that means is
that worldwide we can produce enough food for the people that live in this
world and I think that the global picture that we see in today in terms of
increased increased rate of food production is due to the increased
productivity that we get in in some developed developing regions like in
Asia and Latin America but if you look at the picture in Africa you find the
reverse that cereal crops for example you know the yields have remained
stagnant at very low level over several decades now agricultural productivity is
either declining or has remained stagnant you know over several decades
as well and here our population growth rate is that something like 3%
agricultural growth rate is like is that two point five percents and so in Africa
we cannot produce enough food to feed our people and that is the difference in
the picture of what is happening in Africa and what is happening globally
and what is happening indeed in the developed world but in the last few
years we beginning to see it turn around of this decline in agriculture of
declining and a stagnating agricultural trends in Africa and I think
agricultural productivity has started climbing climbing up however we feel
that this situation is not very constant in Africa on grounds that they smacked
variability in terms of agricultural productivity you know from one country
to another quite a number of countries but at least the deer like Nigeria
Mozambican and South Africa has recorded steady growth of a protected period of
time but if we take a look at what is happening in the continent today why do
we have this long period of stagnated productivity and I believe that one of
the major problem that we encounter is the fact that our production systems are
very diverse and and very dynamic the majority of farmers are cultivating
their crops in rain fed system so we are rain fed dependent and compared to Asia
where this system is mainly irrigated system the crop is mainly rice in Africa
we have 12 stables more than 12 stable and so sometimes it’s a bit difficult to
chat ejects technology to a specific environment but haven’t said that rain
fed system depends on rainfall for agricultural activities if it doesn’t
rain for a protected period you run into into problems problems of droughts for
example and then we have poor infrastructure feeder routes to the farm
gates that will take the inputs external inputs like fertilizers paraffin gates
are very poor we do not have developed markets markets are small and
fragmentary and on top of that we have inconsistent policy that will not favor
the agricultural sector in some cases and of course low investments in
agriculture and agricultural research these are some of the problems that have
plagued the continent for a protected period and so if we look at these
statistics they are really very deplorable statistics one that we would
like to turn around you know as soon as possible
in the continent for example four out of every ten if we can survive with less
than a dollar a day one-third of our people are not malnourished and 32 of 48
least developed countries in sub-saharan Africa and one third of
our children under five as taunted of course due to inadequate
feeling and poor health like I said these are very deplorable statistics
that would like to turn around that investment in agricultural research I
believe has been a very good thing for Africa I think over the years we have
come up with credible technologies important technologies some of these
technologies have earned Africa the World Food Prize cannet queen is here to
testify to that and just to mention a few of these technologies Africa has
come up with high quality protein maize varieties Strega resistant maize varieties
improved high yielding means varieties that are given yields that are much much
higher than previously grown varieties we’ve come up with resist cassava
materials that are resistant to the major cassava diseases cassava mosaic
for example and these materials are being grown in a number of countries and
we’ve seen an increase in yield of up to something like 40% even Andra on the
traditional cultivation system and we’re talking of a system where there is very
little or no use of external inputs like like fertilizers and then we’ve come up
with in erica rice naira can rise a high yielding varieties and these are being
grown not only in West Central Africa where they were originally tested for
today they’ve been grown right across the
continents and we’ve come up with promising beans material banana material
just to mention if you and I would like to show you some pictures of what I’m
talking about the tissue culture banana that we
developed in more than double the years of previous lagoon of previously Gruner
sorry I don’t have a pointer here of previously grown banana Matias
that’s right and if we go for the and look at the America rise that we develop
first of all Marika stems out of an inter specific hybridization between the
Asian indigenous rice species and the African indigenous right speciation
indigenous rights which they have got high yield potential because on the ax
panicle which is the one this way they have up to about 250 grams much higher
than the African indigenous right species where the panicle can hold only
something like 800 to 850 grams so the Asian have got high yield potential you
know compared to the African run type so basically what we do was to combine what
we did was to combine the high lead potential of the Asian rice with the
sturdiness and the ability to suppress weeds generally the adaptation of the
African rice into new improved varieties that we call new rice for Africa and we
succeeded in doing that because if you take a look at the pinnacle in the
middle year it’s from America plants with 400 greens per panicle and so we
got what we call transgressive segregation there and transgresses
segregation of course is where the offspring does better than the best of
the parents you know 400 greens compared to 250 greens and a pencil and and the
plants respond to external input to fertilize the application you give the
appropriate level of inputs you get much higher yields but at the same time this
is coupled with some important traits of the African type ability to suppress
weeds through rapid vegetative growth and droopy lower leaves particularly
during the vegetative phase true it also combines traits like higher level of
resistance or tolerance to some of the major stresses that we encounter in the
region and on top of that we have higher
protein content in America rice and so you can see the difference that such a
rice could make in the lives of the African people even on that traditional
cultivation systems it can give yields of up to something like 25 50 percent
better than the previously grown traditional traditional varieties a
number of countries in Africa have picked up cotton production bt cotton
and today countries like paquimé fossa beam in mali
are making minimum of a hundred million annually through sale of these cotton
through increased production or bid economy so if you take a look at that
level Africa is making some progress they’ve come up with credible
technologies credible technologies are doing well in isolated areas probably
basically what we need to do is to try to see how we can translate these into
continent-wide impacts you know so that we realized increase agricultural
production and increase agricultural productivity in the area of natural
resource management we need to come up with credible technologies as well that
will complement what we do in the area of you write our improvement integrated
natural resource management we need to address issues related to soil
degradation we need to address issues related to deforestation issues related
to drought etc and we need to come up with appropriate integrated pest
management practices and we need to empower the end users particularly the
farmers from us end-users NGO groups etc must have a say in the research that we
conduct because eventually they are the people that will adopt the technologies
that you develop and if you don’t have this a
usually your technology will remain in the shelf and we want these technologies
to get out to the to the field and I personally believe that farmers research
is very important sometimes we say the farmers cannot conduct research what
they do conduct research on the earth and this is a good example of a research
that was conducted by farmers in which in the Sahel zone the dry zone in in
Africa the farmers decided to create pits before where before the rainy
season rainy season is usually rainfall is usually erratic in this part of the
of the continent and it’s not usually adequate to grow a crop of rice but it
don’t be speed and the field is beat up with manual organic manner and and then
in the rainy season we defeat the first rains these pits became nutrient lady I
would say and the better the water holding capacity is much higher and they
able to grow a crop could be rice it could be something else but at least
this is an innovation that came up that came out of the out of deference and I
think that they should be given empowered so that their voices should be
heard and and I think that we should always try to give the farmers that’s
opportunity so basically what we’re saying is that Africa is making some
progress we beginning to see progress at the end we beginning to see progress at
the end of the tunnel we need to make sure that that progress move forward
that greenlight move forward we know that Africa fall in line with the rest
with the rest of the world I am pleased to say that in the last few years
particularly in the 2000 era so far we’ve seen renewed economic growth in
the continent economic growth hats prior to that was at a level of
something like two three percent today it’s gone up at least
the average for 2006 has gone up to five point seven percent which is really very
good and I think that one of the reason for this economy but is the fact that
our political leaders are beginning to tighten their belts generally generally
we get in some form of good governance you know and some kind of commitment to
change to innovation from our governments and we beginning to see them
make commitments you know to agriculture to agricultural research to information
communication systems etc you know so yes we’re beginning to see some
improvements and of course they’ve been interested in Africa’s development as
well I believe it’s because if one lags behind you tend to draw everybody
everyone else behind them and so the international community is beginning to
show interest in Africa’s development for example there is the UN task force
that is operating in Africa there is the former United Nation share personal
secretary Kofi Annan’s initiative on realizing the promise and potential of
African agriculture that is the Tony Blair Commission for Africa that looked
at issues related to development and agricultural development in particular
and they is the g8 declaration to help hunger in Africa so there are lots of international awareness of the need to
assist Africa event and I believe that all these initiatives are very important
but we shouldn’t make the mistakes of the past 50 years we need to coordinate
these initiatives the Africans themselves would need to take the
leadership you know to drive the process of course in conjunction with all those
that we want to support Africa that would like to see Africa grow what about
political commitment I talked of good governance coming on
and I think that at the beginning of the 2000
in an effort to drive the development process our political leaders created a
body that they called NEPAD the new partnership for Africa’s development an
effort was supposed to lead developments in the continent as a whole to drive
economic growth mepid realizing the importance of agriculture as the engine
or the backbone to economic growth develop a document that I call the cadet
the comprehensive African agricultural development program and this is a
program that spells out the strategies it outlines the goals and objectives for
agricultural development in Africa and this calop recognises the vision for
Africa’s development which called for the continent to attain six percent
agricultural production growth rate by the Year 2015
2015 is just nine years away from today six percent agricultural production
growth rate for a continent which for many decades stood around something like
two or three percent you know it’s going to be a daunting task to achieve and on
top of that what does six percent agricultural
production growth rate translates to it calls for Africa to develop dynamic
markets within countries between countries between sub regions and of
course between the continent and the international community it calls for a
net for Africa to become a net exporter of agricultural product and it calls for
equitable distribution of wealth so that there will be food availability food
affordability either you produce what you eat or you have the forms to buy and
eat the kind of food that you wanna be you wanna you wanna eat and then it
calls for Africa to play a strategic role in science and technology
in conservation of the global environment and of course it calls for
Africa to conserve and judiciously utilize its own natural resources which
of course is very very rich natural resources so these are objectives that
must be achieved in 2015 and and that will enable Africa of course to some
extent to achieve some of the millennium development goal and to achieve this
NEPAD decided that we could do that through four pillars
I have not listed the pillar down down here but pillar one relates to London
Water Management pillar two to infrastructural development and market
access military related to food security and poverty alleviation and pillar for
relates to agricultural research technology dissemination and adoption
and pillar for is my concern because I work for the forum for cultural research
in Africa and we coordinate and facilitate agricultural research and we
were called and sign an agreement with the African Union which NEPAD to
coordinate implementation of caterpillar 4 which relates to agriculture is such
technology dissemination and adoption and of course pillar for wants to look
at four major themes integrated natural resource management adaptive management
of germ plasm development of a pre functional markets and development of
appropriate policies that will create the conducive atmosphere for us to work
so in an effort to address those four pillars those four themes of pillar form
we rallied the research development community in fact all entities involved
in agriculture research and development in Africa the researchers extension NGO
group farmers organization from ask themselves policymakers the privates
we all came together to develop spearheaded by Farah we developed a
document that we call fap the framework for African agricultural productivity
and this is a document that actually provide guidance for the development of
productivity programs at national level of sub regional level and at Continental
level and the aim is for all of us to address those pillars that are outlined
in cadet pillar for which is research technology dissemination and adoption
and so you could see that basically what we’ve done is to come up with a common
agenda fabbi cultural research and development
in the continent as a whole an agenda that will be addressed across board at
Continental level by institutions like Farah sub regional level by sub regional
organizations and at national level by national programs and I am pleased to
say that a number of national governments have come up with the all
productivity program long term agricultural development program and
regional institutions like eco as regional economic bodies are coming up
with your own multi-country agricultural productivity program which these are
programs that cut across countries or add values to cause cross current
country collaboration and the framework also give the processes that will steer
institutions and their programs to realize the kind of vision of obtaining
six percent agricultural production retreat by year 2015 it is a strong
political advocacy document that calls for political support institutional
support and of course financial supports so at the political level and that level
we’ve made considerable progress and but they are still some concerns concerns
that we have looked into and we believe that we should take into consideration
in Africa if we’re going to achieve sustainable development sustainable
agriculture development and I should say that these
concerns are listed here that we need to develop innovation systems approach to
technology the technology generation dissemination and adoption and the
reason for this is because in the past 50 years we spent time following what we
call the linear approach in which research developed the technology they
passed the technology onto extension extension is supposed to pass that
technology onto familes it hasn’t worked because extension is very weak they do
not even contact the farmers you know and and and we feel that it’s time that
we should bring everybody along the value chain from research right through
to consumption everybody’s you know participate in the development of the
protocol in implementation of the protocol so that at the end of the day
the farmers we say we are part of it so we endorsed the technology at the end of
the day the private sector we say we are DSO we take the fertilizers to the farm
gate and take the extra product to the maggots you must align production to the
market for you to be able to achieve increase production and of course to
develop to build the well being of the the people that you that you walk in for
the farmers does not have money we not improving their livelihoods and I think
we should we have to carry out institutional and human capacity
building and we have to make sure that we access we ensure access to
information and knowledge and of course to the dissemination of appropriate
technologies in terms of promoting innovation systems approach I think I’ve
described that but they are a number of research areas domains that are very
important intensifying subsistence oriented small holder farming system I’m
not going to read all of them but those are some of the areas of key
importance and we think that these components four components are really
very important individually as components as issues but the interaction
amongst these are also very important you know and the innovation system
approach that we are preaching and now we’ve called for all institutions to
develop this approach in Africa and we’re beginning to see a number of
institutions coming together you know because we feel that this is an approach
that will allow for action learning as you move this continuous learning
you know and it’s build on the principles of participatory approaches
its build on the principles of programmatic integration which we think
it’s very important in terms of building institutional capacity and of course
human capacity as well we need to build the capacity of our institutions our
national programs in particular in the area of governance and research
governance and management in the area of research funding and financial
management which is very important in strength India scientific capacity and
strengthen the capacity to collaborate you know and we need to see how we can
reform our institutions you know so that you do what you can do best somebody
else does what each can do best and at the end of the day you put all your
results together for the benefit of everybody and with regard to
facilitation of information on knowledge and technologies we have to ensure
access to information not only at the research the researcher level the
scientist level extension workers level but also at the reformer level the
foreman needs to get that information to know from his village
that the grain price in the city is that much so that the middle men are the
medium passenger people that goes to purchase from them do not duped us from
us see quite a lot of these things happening in Africa we need to improve
availability of decision making tools and accelerates intra-regional spread of
innovations I have mentioned a number of improved technologies credible
technologies that are out there that we need to disseminate we do need B region
so these are just some thoughts that I thought that I should pass over to you
but I think that I would like to conclude by saying that we are making
some kind of progress in Africa research output is becoming more and more
recognized agriculture research is more becoming more responsive to the markets
we linked in production to markets to improve the well-being of our farmers
who says that his subsistence farmers will not produce extra for sailing so
that he/she can earn money and there is great recognition of the role of
research and development by our political leaders and great awareness of
hiv/aids and other problems that he need to develop approach with appropriate
technologies that will allow these people to function need for us to
consider agenda issues there are lots of female farmers out there and they need
to be empowered they need to sit at all levels including management levels they
need to participate effectively across the board and I believe that basically
what we do is create a conducive atmosphere for Africa to develop its
agricultural production improve its agricultural productivity fall in line
with the rest of the world you know so that we promote the development issues because we feel
that if Africa lags behind then Africa will be draining the other continents of
the our resources that they will use to develop Africa but if Africa fall in
line in Africa will walk with the rest of the world I believe to make this
planet of us a better place for us today for our children and for our children
children tomorrow thank you very much Thank You dr. Jones and dr. Jones has
indicated he would be willing to take questions from the audience there’s a
microphone here in the middle and if I could ask folks to line up behind the
microphone and you might start by telling us who you are hello hi there my name is Luke gran I’m
a senior in forestry like whoa okay I won’t touch it
I’m a senior in forestry at Iowa State University and thank you so much for
coming I really enjoyed the lecture I have two questions regarding biofuels
and climate change both of which were not mentioned in this lecture
specifically about biofuels and combined with the focus of export-led
agricultural growth do you foresee Africa as becoming a leader in for
example palm oil as a biofuel to supply Europe and if so what is the impact that
could have on the subsistence farmers or food security for people in Africa and
my second question is about climate change
seeing how sub-saharan Africa is the predictions are not too good regarding
climate change in sub-saharan Africa what do you see as kind of the
leadership steps we should be taking now in order to stave off any sort of
collapse or more drastic problems related to food food production in
sub-saharan Africa oh go ahead
okay thank you this sorry I didn’t get your name but those are two very
important questions and and I think that two issues relates the two issues that
we trying to see how we can solve in Africa and I should say that bhootish is
really trying to see how we can come up with an African strategy you know – well
African strategies to address those two issues with regards to both well I think
what I would like to say is that the the Green Revolution bypassed Africa in the
60s and since then Africa has been saying we must achieve that Green
Revolution we still have not achieved a green revolution so when these
developments these issues that will improve the well-being the livelihood of
the people whenever they come up come up we would like to give support to read
also in the area of buy of well my institution Farah and a number of other
institutions in the continent including Nepal itself are looking at this and
then try to see if we should come up with a strategy one in which of course
each country will have to take a decision on really wanna go whether they
want to go for food security or they want to go for energy production using
crops to produce energy like you mentioned palm oil you know that we
personally feel that if this is an area that will bring resources to deferments
an area that will bring resources to the country you know that will solve the
problem of energy help to solve at least meet energy demand
we feel that Africa should go for it but we feel that each country should work
out a strategy whereby they would not sacrifice food security for energy I
think the only sustainable way that you can keep it a country is for that
country to be able to put use it own food you know rather than to import
food one will say okay make me money and use the money to buy to buy food but I
think that that is not sustainable because if they have problems from area
importing the food then you also run into that problem so I advise at this
stage you know as we come up with a strategy is to create a balance within
your country or within your sub region so that you devote certain area to meet
in your own food security needs and other areas to meet your energy needs or
at least to grow crops that will provide energy and of course and you earn you
some money as well this is the approach that we think that we would like to take
at this point in time the climate change is an issue that we are all frightened
about we looking at it and we know that Africa is going to be severely affected
by this it’s we beginning to see the effect of this beginning to see
excessive droughts and excessive flood and low cost and some of these other
problems you know and again we trying to come up with a strategy a global
strategy for the continent to address this to be able to predict when some of
these problems will occur and then how to tackle some of these problems at
least these are structures that we are trying to put in place meanwhile I
believe all sectors including researchers and government parties are
quite aware of this problem here and there they are discussions on this of
course we need to coordinate ourselves and make sure that we follow a strategy
that is defined for the for the continent but I agree with you if you do
not address it it’s going to result a very serious problem for Africa and we
don’t want this to happen at this point in time that we beginning to see a
turnaround at least in agricultural production and beginning to see some
kind of increased agriculture productivity you know from within the
continent I tell you it is delighted to note that at least 11 countries in
Africa has attained or pretty close to attaining that six percent level of
agricultural production growth rates that our political leaders man idiot or
country to achieve in 2015 climate change might change all of that
if we do not address if we do not address this particular issue so it is
very important for us thank you hi my name is Chad Nelson and thank you for
coming I was just curious about international investment I was wondering
if you could comment on it I know that there’s a stock market in South Africa
but other than that I feel like investments in Africa stemmed right now
so I was wondering if there was any progress that you know knew of or could
comment on for international investment now okay
I believe in my lecture I didn’t mention a range of initiatives international
initiatives to support African agriculture and African developments
I talked of the Tony Blair initiative which has made some funds available to
support various projects in Africa so internationally Africa is getting quite
a lot of support and I will tell you that our demand for agricultural
research and extension in the continent is up – very recently in the region of
something like 2.5 3 billion annually you know and and 45 percent of that is
coming from national governments another 40 45 percent also is coming from the
international funding agencies the World Bank
see etc you know the investment that is coming from Africa is been you can see
it’s very small because it’s a a Greek cultural activities at 40% 45% it still
small but recently government’s many commitments to increase the investments
to 10% of their national budget 10% of the imaginable yet and for some
countries like South Africa that you mentioned that could be substantial
amount of money you know substantial South Africa is one country that is
investing a lot almost all countries in the last three to four years have
increased the investment in agriculture and agricultural research almost all
countries in the continent so we beginning to see a slow comeback or a
slow support to agriculture and agricultural research and I think that
if this momentum continues then it will get to a point where if we and
especially if we continue to see increased agricultural productivity we
are there the access forms that government will be able to put into
agricultural development as well um do you know of any private opportunities
for investment or an expansion and progress in the private sector there are
lots of private opportunities for investment in Africa Africa isn’t down
with lots of resources that needs to be tapped we need to invest in those areas
I’m not going to mention mineral resources are just tremendous you know
and in the agricultural sector I think this you mentioned palm oil this is an
area that needs to be developed and we see flurry culture horticulture becoming
very important means of trade between Africa and the international community
particularly to European countries you know and I mentioned cotton that is you
know so there are lots of areas where means and I think that this is the good
thing that Africa is good got all of these resources today Africa may not be
sitting in the banquet table but tomorrow Africa could play a major role
in that banquet table because of its relevant mineral resources that
everybody who want to get answer and even Martin Clark I was in Ethiopia in
2009 charged handsome young your cultures from the first answer question
I got was like I’m in America you increasingly services in fireman fireman
fireman here telling us to decrease our and they worked as a group of young in
culture so we’re going to with cultural properties it seemed that there you know
for pricing I’m not can you yeah she’s like you know forward pricing system for
the green so there’s lots of farmers in these small properties borrowed money to
hold the green land for a few months and selling in the meantime foreign trade
came in free grain like the face of this and the farmers are so wholly green how
much is a WTO affecting how much is what WTO trade and trade affecting I see okay I’m sorry but I’m not sure I
got the question very well you know but Africa have not fared very well in the
in in the international trade for many reasons you know because of you have to
look at quality you have to look at standards and and you have to take this
into consideration and you’re talking of people that I involved in a subsistence
farming you know and and so they’d they could not meet that standard you know
but I think that III mentioned earlier on flora culture which is becoming very
important read banana or a cent read banana or a century banana or

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