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Biology – Agriculture and crop management in India – English



good morning children today we shall learn how farmers grow crops the cultivation of crop is not an easy task farmer needs to take care of many activities very carefully to have a good harvest these activities are called agriculture practices so to cultivate crop the farmers have to prepare soil so right kind of seeds at right time add manual of fertilizer provide water to the crops through irrigation protect crops from the pests destroy weeds harvest the crop and store them properly so let us see all these practices in detail first the soil is prepared so we can say the preparation of soil is the first step before growing a crop one of the most important tasks in agriculture is to turn the soil and loosen it this process of loosening and turning of the soil is called tilling or blowing cultivation requires a lot of work but machines have made things easier the next step after blowing is sowing of seeds farmer needs to saw lots of seeds and that too in a uniform manner if too much seeds get populated at a place and other places get very few seeds then the farmer wouldn't get a good harvest besides farmers also need to sow only good seeds because sowing spoiled seed would just be waste of land as there would not be any good harvest so after sowing the seed the next step is adding off-menu or fertilizer water fertilizers or the manual the substances which are added to the soil in form of nutrients for the healthy growth of plants are called manual and fertilizers why is their need for adding manures and fertilizers you know continuously growing crops make the soil poorer in certain nutrients therefore farmer needs to add manure to the fields to replenish the soil with the nutrients this process is called manuring improper or insufficient menuing results in weak plants what is the difference between fertilizer and the manure the fertilizers are chemical substances which are rich in a particular nutrient these fertilizers are produced in factories for example urea ammonium sulfate super phosphate potash NPK etc on the other hand manure is an organic substance which is obtained from the decomposition of plant and animal wastes so we can say organic manure is better than chemical fertilizer why because it enhances the water holding capacity of the soil it makes the soil porous due to which exchange of gases become easy it increases the number of friendly microbes and it improves the texture of soil how by adding humors you know there is another way of replenishing the soil with nutrients this method is called crop rotation and what is done in this case in this case the crops are grown alternately farmers in northern India used to grow legumes as fodder in one season and wheat in the next season this helped in the replenishment of the soil with nitrogen so this method of crop rotation should be used as a good way of replenishment of the soil next the farmer has to provide water to the crops this supply of water to crops at different intervals is called irrigation the time and frequency of irrigation varies from crop to crop soil to soil and from season to season so in summer season the frequency of water is higher because there is increased rate of evaporation of water from the soil and from the leaves the source of water for irrigation are mainly well ponds rivers lakes and two wells next how to protect the crops from pests farmers use pesticides to protect crops from the pests in a field many other undesirable plants may also grow naturally along with the crop these undesirable plants are called weeds and we need to remove them this removal of weed is called weeding weeds can be removed using simple tools and they can also be controlled using chemicals these are called vidi sides we decides a bad for health so farmer needs to cover the face and be cautious while applying it to the plants farmers work very hard for many months to grow good crop then comes to time for harvesting the cutting of crop after it is mature is called harvesting cereal crops like paddy wheat barley etc take her out for months to mature after the harvest crop needs to be stored properly to protect it from moisture microbe space like rats etc so crops are dried properly before storing in Jude bags metallic drums otherwise fungus may grow on them grains are stored in silos and granaries to protect them from insects rats etc big godowns are also used to store crops in large quantity nowadays crops which spoil quickly like vegetables etc are stored at low temperature in big godown so to summarize what we learn today cultivation of crop involves several activities which are undertaken by farmers over a period of time these activity or tasks are referred to as agricultural practices the various activities involved in this are first preparation of soil by plowing or tilling next sowing of seeds and ensuring that seeds are of good quality before sowing adding manure and fertilizers irrigation which means watering of crops at regular intervals protecting the crops from weeds harvesting which means cutting of the crop after it is mature and lastly storage that is storing in proper place to protect them from rats and insects so we see a lot of effort and sweat of the farmer is gone in cultivation of crops so children we should value food and never waste it that's all for now bye bye children

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