CBSE Class 9 Science, Improvement in Food Resources -2, Animal Husbandry

the increase in the human population has led to a rise in the demand for meat livestock production needs to gear up to meet this increased demand for hygienic li produced meat eggs and other animal produce such as honey so how do we ensure these needs are met that's where animal husbandry comes in in this lesson you will learn about animal husbandry by the end of this lesson you will be able to define animal husbandry describe cattle farming explain the management practices for rearing cattle describe poultry farming explain the significance of crossbreeding explain the management practices for poultry farming describe fish farming identify the various ways of obtaining fish classify the species of fish that are farmed explain marine fishery explain in land fishery describe composite fish farming describe beekeeping and list various varieties of bees animal husbandry is the farming and management of animal life stock including cattle goat sheep hole tree and fish it includes various aspects such as feeding breeding and Disease Control meet Moo looks like she's going somewhere she looks excited hey I hear from my friends that life on their farm is very comfortable my village in the mountains is riddled with diseases and we are running short of food I am tired of the daily struggle so I'm on my way to join my friends hey there's the farm looks like a nice clean place and I can smell the hay I'm hungry already now let me see they have cattle poultry fish and even bees here I should be able to find my friends in the cattle farm so I'll head there see you looks like Moo has found her friends and a lot of new people as well as you can see along with cows cattle include buffaloes goats and sheep the practice of rearing cattle by providing facilities raising livestock is called cattle farming two major species of Indian cattle our boss indicus or cows and boss Boober lists or buffaloes cattle farming is done for milk production and agricultural work milk-producing female animals are called dairy animals therefore mu is a dairy animal and she will probably contribute to the milk production at the farm in due course agricultural work involves tilling irrigation and carting male cattle used for such farm labor are called draught animals moves friend Big Joe is involved in agricultural work hey you know great I'm so excited why don't you show me around where do you live what kind of food do they give you let's take a tour of the farm with Moo this will be a good opportunity to examine the management practices / rearing cattle should be interesting to find out how they are able to keep their cattle well-fed and happy ah these cattle seem to be enjoying themselves look at how well they're being groomed Moo is already enjoying her first cleaning session as you can see cleaning involves regular brushing and washing to remove dirt and lose hair now let's follow her to see where they're living Porter's are there they go nice shelter isn't it shelter facilities include well-ventilated roof sheds to protect cattle from rain heat and cold let's leave them to rest for a while this seems to be where the cattle eat animal feed are of two types feed containing high fiber content called roughage for energy and concentrate feed that is feed containing low fiber and high protein content for increasing body weight my friend Millie was really in bad shape when I left the farm something called foot and mouth disease I hope the disease hasn't reached here mood doesn't need to worry diseases in cattle are caused by external and internal parasites external parasites live on the skin and cause skin diseases internal parasites like worms affect the stomach and intestine liver fluke an internal parasite often damages the liver of cattle infectious diseases are often caused by bacteria and viruses how does this farm handle these threats this farm has set up a proper disease control system shelters and other areas on the farm are cleaned and disinfected regularly and vaccination against various diseases is provided to all cattle can you guess what this is the milk production unit of course as a dairy animal Moo is likely to spend a lot of time here if she gives birth to a calf the period following the birth of a calf is called the lactation period because during this period high milk production is observed by lending the lactation period through hormonal stimulation milk production can be enhanced Wow I see some foreigners here as well that's a Jersey cow and this one is the brown swiss that's interesting wonder what they are doing on this farm can you guess why foreign and local breeds can be cross bred to facilitate the growth of animals with desired qualities for example a Jersey cow has a long lactation period on the other hand a local breed like a red Cindy cow displays a high resistance to diseases therefore crossbreeding among Jersey and bred Cindy breeds might lead to a new breed with a long lactation period as well as a strong resistance to diseases hey who lives in that area across the field I see some hints mooo is talking about the poultry farming section poultry farming is the practice of raising poultry for egg production and chicken meat typically fowls and improve poultry breed are used for producing eggs and broilers are used for producing me remember we spoke about crossbreeding in cattle farming crossbreeding is common in poultry as well for example an Indian breed Aseel is often cross bred with a foreign breed Leghorn to develop new varieties with desirable traits so what could such desirable traits be to give you an idea crossbreeding is done to develop dwarf broiler parents for commercial chick production which ensures that the birds are ready to be used as meat within a very short period of time reduce the size of the fowls which are egg-laying smaller birds consume less food and yield the same number of eggs as larger birds increase the number and quality of chicks lower maintenance requirements and enable the poultry to tolerate high temperatures during summer let's look at the management practices for poultry farming maintenance of temperature which is optimum for the survival of poultry provision of hygienic housing conditions provision of a protein-rich diet with high levels of vitamin A and K and the prevention and control of pests and diseases through Oh sanitation spraying of disinfectants and vaccinations sounds impressive and what's that ah the fish production unit yes those enclosures that look like tanks are used to produce fish for commercial purposes this is also called fish farming or aquaculture fish is a cheap source of animal protein generally fish production involves two main species of fish finned true fish such as cutler and Rojo and shellfish such as prawns and mollusks we obtain fish in two ways capture fishing and culture fishing capture fishing involves obtaining fish from natural resources like sea water or fresh water such as rivers and ponds culture fishing involves culturing the fish in small enclosures phishing is classified into two types depending upon the resources used for fishing marine fishery and inland fishery fishing in saltwater regions like seas and oceans is called marine fisheries marine fishing resources include 7500 kilometers of the Indian coastline fish are caught using fishing nets popular marine fish varieties include pomfrit mackerel and tuna marine fish of high economic value are farmed in seawater like Biggie and pearl spots shellfish such as prawns mussels and oysters are also farmed in seawater always stirs are cultivated but the pearls they make but I have heard that the stock of fish in the oceans is getting depleted unfortunately that's true but as the marine fish stock gets depleted the demand for more fish can be met by culture fishing or marry culture marry culture involves culturing of fish in marine water another technique for capturing fish is by locating large schools of fish in the open sea using satellites and eco Sounders Inland Fisheries comprise freshwater regions like fresh water canals horns rivers and reservoirs where fish are trapped or captured another rich source of fish are found in reservoirs where freshwater and seawater mixed together these regions are called estuaries interestingly fish culture is sometimes combined with rice farming so that fish can be grown in the paddy fields I wonder what kind of food they eat – all of them have similar feeding habits like us cows feeding habits of fish can differ significantly this makes it possible to do intensive fish farming of five or six fish species with different food habits in a single fish pond this kind of fish farming is called composite fish farming for example consider the following combination Katla the surface feeders rojo that feed in the middle zone of the pond Riggle and common carp that are bottom feeders and grass carp that feed on weeds so all of these species can coexist in a single pond without fighting with each other for food this helps increase the yield of fish from the pond however one problem with such composite fish culture is that many of these fish breed only during the monsoons even if fish seed is collected from the natural habitat of a particular fish it may be mixed with the eggs of other species of fish so a major problem in fish farming is the lack of availability of good quality seed or eggs to overcome this problem fish is bred in ponds by hormonal stimulation fish are injected with hormones that stimulate the production of eggs or seed this ensures the supply of pure fish seed of desired quantities hey stay away from those boxes move why what's in these boxes they contain beehives beehives are enclosed structures in which honeybees live and raise their young the practice of maintaining honeybee colonies in beehives is called beekeeping or ap culture for commercial honey production bee farms or apiaries are established beekeeping helps us obtain honey which is widely used in food as well as in medicines beehives are also a source of wax which is used in various medicinal preparations such as augments because of its antiseptic properties since beekeeping needs low investment it has become a popular agricultural enterprise the taste and quality of honey depends upon the pasturage that is the flower is available to the bees for nectar and pollen collection the local varieties of bees used for commercial honey production are apis cerana indica commonly known as the Indian be apis Dorset ah the rock B and APUs flore the little bee an Italian B variety apis mellifera is commonly used for commercial honey production as bees of this species have a high honey collection capacity this is such a nice place I'm going to try my best to provide good services so I get a place here this brings us to the end of this lesson on animal husbandry in this lesson you have learnt about the various aspects of animal husbandry [Applause] [Applause]


  1. Kamaljit Kaur

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  2. Lakshmipathi L pathi

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  3. Archana Mishra

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