Ceramic manufacturing process in Gayafores factory.

Gaea 4s after more than a century of experience kaya Forres has a hundred and sixty thousand square meters of facilities adapted to operate with the latest generation of top-notch technologies in ceramic printing daya 4s specializes in ceramic floor and wall tiles with an annual production of more than 2.5 million square meters since its origins in 1897 kaya Forres has always been committed to supplying high quality products this is why our manufacturing processes comply with the strictest quality standards the ceramic manufacturing process consists of the following stages preparation of raw materials pressing blazing firing sorting packaging step by step in the manufacturing process raw materials clay and glaze a ceramic tile is a mix of various clays which make up what is known as biscuit and glazes which you can see on the surface and allows us to give the tiles a series of different designs the aim globe is the base we use to join the clay and the glaze together the ceramic process begins with selecting the raw materials that we mix to create the tile basically clay feldspar sand carbonate and kaolin as the raw materials are used just as they are extracted from the mines and the quarries the first and most important thing we do is check the uniformity to ensure their properties remain consistent to do this the materials undergo a mechanical milling process that disperses the particles and reduces their size they'e Forres as its own glazing warehouse silos and an unloading Bay for the treated clay Spray drying and pressing the manufacturing process starts with the raw materials being atomized or spray dried the atomized dust used to make the ceramic base or biscuit is spherical and hollow as water is removed rapidly in the atomizer it is important that the granules are spherical and hollow to make the pressing easier so they fill the mold and can be compacted in the press this is essential to obtain a product with a required mechanical strength for the journey it is about to begin along the glazing and decoration line the atomized dust is loaded into a silo and then fed into the cart on the press these presses are one way that is they press in a vertical direction at high pressure to compact the atomized clay the granules are literally broken so the original particles obtained during the milling process which would be the agglomerate reappear they start to stick to each other from the action of the press and their water content which acts as a fluid if account forming the royal tile with sufficient consistency to be transported the tiles are dumb and must be dried drying is carried out in a horizontal dryer and when the tiles emerge they have a residual humidity of around 0.5% they are not dried anymore because when a ceramic tile is fully dried it becomes very fragile tiles have to be glazed and decorated in other words they are about to undergo a series of mechanical actions and if they become too fragile they would run the risk of breaking very easily glazing in decoration the tiles go directly to the glazing line where several coats of slip and glaze are applied the N globe is an interface material that lays between the clay base and the glaze that is to be applied to it one layer of glaze is applied on top of the globe to provide a base for the decoration the main technique used that Gaia Forres is digital ink injection this is the most innovative technology in the entire ceramic sector that we use to personalize our designs and reproduce our stone wood rustic marble and other patterned effects our machines enable us to decorate our ceramic tiles by contactless ink injection allowing us to cover 100% of the tile including high and low relief to get perfect finishes similar to methods employed in the graphic sector at the moment we are able to reach resolutions of 400 dpl's with our printer heads working with Penta chrome an application of digital effects we can be very flexible in terms of customized decoration by changing the digital files that operate this printing system with ink injection we applied design and color to the tiles with perfect glaze preparation and much lower waste this technology has another advantage in that it allows us to add other technologies of grain application rotary printing and rotogravure to apply other materials all this means we can give the final product the technical properties that make ceramic tiles so special impermeability resistance to chemical attack non-slip surfaces easy cleaning immutability etc love aesthetic qualities that give the tiles the desired depth and texture along with a realistic and natural appearance firing the next and crucial step is firing the tiles firing is performed in single layer roller kilns using very fast firing cycles of about 45 to 60 minutes these kilns are fired by gas they have a relatively low yet wide chamber measuring about 2.5 meters across and are around a hundred and ten meters long enabling a large number of tiles to be fired at the same time they reach a maximum temperature of somewhere between 1,100 and 1,200 degrees centigrade the flame is in direct contact with the tiles being fired the process is highly optimized in terms of heat recovery in order to reduce field consumption and the kilns are designed in such a way that the hot gas is produced are you reused to preheat the tiles in the first firing stages in this type of kiln it is very easy to produce a large quantity of material in a very short time sorting and packaging once fired the tiles are sorted and undergo a number of quality control procedures the first using equipment that carries out a visual check of the surface on the top facing side of the tile using a machine with artificial vision handled by an operator who inspects the design and color tone of each and every tile to eliminate visibly defective items later the sorter determines the size of the tiles ceramic tiles must always be the same size which must comply with certain standards of flatness all of which are checked on the sorting lines ceramic tiles are an industrial product and are used because of the consistency of their properties including their aesthetic qualities once the tiles are sorted in boxed they are stored until ready for distribution to anywhere in more than 90 countries where Gaia Forres operates


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