Articles, Blog

Setting the Stage: Why Agriculture

good afternoon my name is Ronnie Green I have the pleasure of serving as the vice chancellor of the institute of ariculture and natural resources and vice president of the University and it’s a pleasure this afternoon to welcome you all to our very first inaugural Heuermann lecture here on our campus we appreciate very much the school of natural resources for hosting us this afternoon in this beautiful facility and we have a really profound afternoon ahead for you to hear from our honor lecture We started talking last year about nine months ago about how we could create here in the institute of ag and natural resources more discussion around the global challenges that we see facing us whether it be in food security whether it be a natural resource security whether it a in the sustainability of our rural landscapes around the world Many of you will have heard us say that these challenges really intersect at the moment in ways we have not seen for many many decades So the generousity of a gift that came to the university recently allowed us to really move forward with establishing a monthly lecture series around those topics here on our campus for our students for our faculty for our staff for the greater community in our state and region to be talking about these important issues We’ve named these lectures the Heuermann lectures in offer of Keith and Norma Heuermann from Philips, Nebraska Long time members of the agriculture community here in the state Who have been ver generous in their support for the university particularly around our programs in agronomy. Keith and Norma are here today and are seated down here in the front so if you will wave at the folks let’s give them a big round of appreciation for their gift. [44] everyone here is special today. but we do have some distinquished guest who are with us that I would like to bring your attention and asked them to stand and be recognized first over here on my far left roger Warrbine as the lights go out so noone can see Roger roger Warrbine many will know as the former state senator. He is the president of the Ag Builders of Nebraska thank you for being here, Roger [55] [56] and i think seeing through the dark… I see the shine coming off of Regents Randy Ferlic’s face Randy from Omaha member of our board of regents We also are privilege today for have former governor and senator bob Kerrey from Nebraska most recently as president a new university in new york Senator Kerrey. [64] [65] and last but not least I’ll call to the podium to introduce our distinquished lecturer today the president of the university of Nebraska J B Milliken who I think you all know has these topic near and dear to his heart. J B [71] [72] thanks doctor Green I also want to add a recognition of my friend and some one who has a name very close to mind but not mine she is not my wife or my sister Cynthia Milligan who is on the advice board for the world food prize and going to Des Moines at the same time that Dr. Swaminathan is and whose father … Clifford Harden was an amazing leader for this university and formerly on the Rockerfellow board and others so cynthia thank you to your continuing interest in this [88] [89] So it is a special honor for my colleagues and for me to have a truly extrodinary figure as the first speaker of the university of Nebraska Heuermann lecture series I want to add my thanks to the Heurermanns and to Vice Chancellor Green for initiating this important new series I believe the university of Nebraska has a legitimate opportunity to be if we make the right decisions and the right investments the leading university in the nation for agriculture and natural resources and that’s a goal i completely support when we launched the Dority institute for water for food we said we wanted Nebraska to play a lead role in solving some of the global challenges including producing more crop a drop Simurly we want the university to assume a lead role in insuring food security around world much of the effort of people like Vice Chancellor Green and me and my colleagues here one false reading the right vision marshalling resources and attract and talent to the university we want world leaders in these critical areas to look at Nebraska for research for graduates and for our science based policy development one such leader over the last half century or more is doctor m. s. Swaminathan doctor Swaminathan is well known to world for devoting his lifes work to addressing some of the most critical issues facing humanitarian issues such as food security agricultural sustainability and the health amd well being of people around world particularly women and children His scientific virtuaosity and innovation in agriculture the key to not only human existence but productivity and happiness lead to his recognition as the father of Indias green revolution he’s been called one of the twenty most influential asians of the twentieth century a living legend Titles that are rightly earned because of his contributions to agriculture and humanity. For this he was recognized by his friend Norman Borlaug and others when he was chosen as the inaugural recipients of the world food prize. On that occassion Borlaug referred to Dr. Swaminathan as one of the world’s greatest scientist. [141] Dr. Swaminathan used the funds from the world food prize and from his other prices [143] to open the important research institute in Chenni, India. When I met him last year at the world food price in Des Moine we both realize the congruence of the vision of the Swaminathan foundation in Chenni and the University of Nebraska and the opportunity for important collaboration between these two We may be on different continents but we share a commetment developing strategy for optimal water management and dramatic improvements in food security Our colaborations blossomed quickly earlier this your Dr. Swaminathan and I cohosted an event in Chenni focused on managing water for food security and sustainability We had an excellent dialogue and are continuing to work on more events which my colleagues at the university and I look forward to When we were in Chenni we invited doctor Swaminathan to come to Nebraska and he immediately accepted We are delighted he is here with us today It is truly an honor for the University of Nebraska It’s robert B. Doherty water for food institute and our first Heuermann Lecture series to host this giant in his field please join me and welcome our inaugural Heuerman Lecture series and our friend m. s. Swaminathan Thank you very much President Milliken for this generous introduction This generous invitation to come to this wonderful University and also vice president Green distinquished participants Ladies and gentleman I have been traveling in this part of the U.S. for a very long time I joined the University of Wisconsin in 1952 ___ this is ___ associate in genetic come many times to Iowa and other places but I appologize I have not come to Nebraska. and it has been a privilage all of today. There are many kinds of programs which are in progress which touch the core of human concerns today but of the children the future all water and food and climite issues and so I feel really privileged to share some thoughts with you this afternoon Although I know what I’m going to say is not something new to you because are all experts in your own fields. Well particularly it is a privilege to give the opening lectures of this series which the University is organizing. [209] In the name of Norma and Keith Heuermann I have read about them they are very sparing about giving information they do not want to say much about their own work appart from being an outstanding plant breeder and grower what has impressed me most in terms of their long work and life
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mission. They are philanthropist and completely self-effacing but doesn’t want other people to know that they are giving, In the India philosopy that is the height of giving when you give to someone withou telling who is giving they belong to that kind of category I know it is an old standing rule more for alumni so thanks you President Milliken for asking me to speak one is to speak to is audience and secondly and the first lecture of the series which you are starting in the name of two of the greatest human beings our plant today ….I’m going to deal with three or four issues with in the time availabe to me first in relation to food security an area of concern the increasing price volatility … volatility I’m talking about at the global level national level also we have problems. In India for example the food inflation is rather high there are different reasons but internationally among many reasons there are three or fourthat are very important one is of course is the demand supply situation in the world the demand exceeds supply the
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prices go up the energy cost in 2008 high escalation in prices was because suddenly the whole petroleum prices went up this year also there was concern because what of what is called adspring there maybe a program because of prices fortunaly just now it has started stablizing and coming down the other is the climate ???? ? this year for example drought in Russia problems and china programs in Brazil and many other countries When there is a difficulty they will put a stop on export. Export countries for example in 2008 when Thialand found the price of imports was going up they band export of rice. They are a major exporter of rice. So price volatility comes from different angles The last one ….. the last one month there is some degree of again drop in the prices but this maybe really from .. [270] so how do we really mentioned this one the other program is land is going out of agriculture for a variety of purposes which I will mention later. And with those condition we have no option but to produce more from less land and less water But the world bank in its report on agriculture says that is what is called the effective of the grain revolution the grain revolution …. for improvement of production to productivity improvement not to area expansion but to vertical growth in productivity Wheat, maize, rice.. and all these crops When I talk about grain revolution I going to say the first grain revoluiton was really in corn in iowa. By a company … Henry Wallace .. because as a geneticist grain revolution means higher productivity so major break through to hybrid took place in corn. In the case of rice, wheat and so on its the architecture the smaller the dwarf plant architecture which enabled us to get more water and more nutrients so on the conditions there we have no option except to produce more from less land. You will find that the growth rate is going down and then we have a problem there In other words how are going to know the world has declined and see that it is going to be. The third major problem is a question of climate veriability extremes of weather conditions Take for example in India, our studies show nearly 50 percent of currently rated favorable, high potential wheat production area may have to be reclassified as a heat-stressed, lower-potential short-season growing environment by 2050 2050 is not too far. Each one degree centigrade .. higher degree temperature we are likley to lose 6 days in growth grow period. Yield goes down because you you reduce duration. [317] Six million tons of wheat will go down in … that region So as a breeder, or as a researcher do we just give these facts and keep quiet? What are we going to do about it? What I call anticipated research What kind of research once we know it is going to happened How to check So one way in the case of wheat or rice and so on is to shift them in such as in selection plant selection in veriable population To parla productivity then per crop productivity. In other words I have seen when I was at the International Rice Institute the genotypes vary from about 50 kilograms per hector a day to 100 kilograms per hector a day ??? in terms of the production potential per day So I’m just giving one example one has to sit down on and antalize this is a problem this is how we are going to solve it. In other wise, anticipate the research becomes very important under climate change. I currently chair a committee called the high level panel of experts the steering committee of the committe of food security. The United Nations has informed the committee on food security called CFS they have now combined the E fund the International fund The ?? program ?? formally it was only in a fuel committee Today it is a committe of many members form the United Nations and they choice four areas for the panel of experts to give them guidence. or suggestions. one was price volatility and food security what is implicadtion because we know in many countries today there maybe exception … Somalia and on there maye a conflict or temporary problem. But essentially the world over it is not just food shortage alone its economic access of purchasing to buy the food. therefore when the price goes up the poorer you are the higher the percenage of income goes for food. Seventy percent…eighty percent and so on So the prices go up you buy less for the same amount of money. So the price volatilty and food security .. The other was the land use. land ?? an international investment in agriculture largely because of the growing interest in bio-fuels. thought that african countries have large under classed land which could be reclassed to produce more food hopefully for more fuel. Most of you are interested and might have seen it It will be formally presented in another ten days at Rome in the committe on food secuity .. you may like to go to it Because it contains several interesting additions. Now I’m just taking one ??, I’m not going to take the the price volitility in year of climage change We’ve organized our accommodations into two groups one is international agenda .. what the global community can do and what national governments should do themselves One think is clear the commodity markets acquire some degree of oversite. Today there is some other market ??? and increase transparency in exchange trading and provide government agencies with authority to ? over the counter ??? . There are some steps that were taken by international community then there is need for restoring confidence in the international trading system the bill around negotiations as yet to be finalized as yet to be finalized has not yet come largely in the agricultural sector there are differences among the ?? countries the ?? countries in terms of subsitizes in the agricultural sector agricultural sector but it is it is to the benefit of everyone that we come to an agreement, because you know you got the that leaves over the lived paid over the she rural based organization ? organization. It is always better going bilaterlly on every issue the multilateral systems aren’t always much more useful. Important, export policies as I said today a country of course charity begins at home we have to look at our own interest. You can suddenly stop the export of wheat, try to stop the export of rice then it completely changes the the large exporters stop exporting information on market fundamentals is very important at the same time the number of social support systems are also emmerging globaly. There is already ?? programs ?? one. now Joseph ??? and colleagues are doing an extraodinary capable work in terms of coming to the coming to the rescue of countries which require aid then there are certain countries like Argentina, Australia, and Canada and so on large additions of Canada they also started a full day of convention to help those countries which are in distress Because after all the first among the hierarchial needs of a human being. We can live without anything but not without food and therefore, how do you help those countries like Samalia had a problem. The other thing is, investing in agro-ecological agriculture, and how we’ve come to shifting from a green to evergreen revolution. Evergreen revelution means improvement of productivity and perpetuity without ecological harm. climate resilient farming, I gave you an example earlier of anticipater research on a per day productivity increase, so if the duration goes down. Climate change will not have the same impact everwhere for example, northern latitude the duration may go longer and that means the impact may go up. It’s a common but differentiated impact of climate change. And then, today the biodiversity the, the earlier crops are becoming part in saving the lost crops what tradition wisdom or dying wisdom widen the food basket. Those of you who know ver well gradually, if you look at books like the lost crops of Incas by the U.S acadamy of sciences you will find, just a couple of centuries ago, a very large number of plants were responsible for food security and health security, medicine was plant sources but gradually, the international market has narrowed it down to four to five crops, wheat, rice, corn, potato, soybeans and so on. how do you really enlarge the foot basket and finally the policy relation to land use how much land can you divert for fuel purposes how much of course everyone agrees we can find win, win situation as far as food and fuel. Biomas for example or ?? residues at the ? production and so on. Or they maybe countries like Brazil with a very large amount of land some they have taken for biofuel production In this country you are using a large amount of corn now but I think Nebraska, Iowa and so on In terms of biofuel production..all the ethanol production The other aspect that is rather difficult is the question of food chain one of the problems of the farmers of the Soviet Union was they had very large beef consumption and they were producing enough, but because the animals also needed food, so there for a lot of grains had to be divered to animal feed. so the more you have to plan animal for man chain. I’m not recommending vegetarianism for everyone but no less it’s true the vegetarian diet is much more efficient in terms of ?? but in the case you take animal products you have more food. In the national agenda, apart from the international agenda you must improve domestic supply that’s where much of action lies at the national level. Support by international community measures to prevent domestic price for prizes or what is called food inflation There are measures the national goverment can take to contain food inflation Those who do not have access to food and those that are too poor when poverty is low how do you increase access and reducing the vulnerabilty of the household. One way is to increase and enlarge the food basket and as far as the nutition security is concerned adopt a life cycle approach, in other words starting with the pregnant mother to old persons. The entire life cycle of an individual must be covered by food security and that is how id should be done. in order to intiate a sound policy science based on … analysis based science policy it is important to have very detail analysis of what is happening we have in my center, which President Milliken and other have visited with along with the world food program analyized the situation in India Food security in rural India, food and security in urban India and also sustainability of food security concerning the problesm of land, water, bio diversity, climate and so on. and we are ?? hunger in the three diamensions because if you want food secuity look at hunger cronic hunger of protein ?? nutrition. Hidden hunger caused by micro dificiencies. like iron. iodine, ?? Iron dificiencies is very serious and it is a very large problem with Vitamin A and B12 and so on and ?? hunger that can be caused – by weather, communication or by conflict. There are also three aspects of food security availability of food in the market it can be a function of home production or import or a joint food production, home production plus import on access to food which is a function of ?? Absortion of food in the body which is a function of clean drinking water sanitation and modern hygene and so on In other words food and not food factors both aquire attention. Drinking water for example, normally we don’t include it with food secuirty. We have seen in India many parts the child has enough calories and so…no problem at all. But the intestinal load of infection as a result of unclean water so if you want the food security at the level of individual we must look at the other aspects, no food aspects, such as water and sanitation primery health care, immunization and so on. kFood and water security will be the greatest victims of climate change in many countries In india intitlements how to have insured access to food Gradually in a democratic country like India, the approach has shift fromm the people now wanting everying by polical patronage because government changes. They want it has a legal right. Right for information Right to education right to work Right to land on the part of the ethni communities or tribal communities. So in the last five or six years the flow has shifted to one of rights base. Rights based, but legal…legal rights Now the latest in that series is the national food security bill which addresses of the issues already mentioned for example The legal intitlement to food on a life cycle bases starting with the pregnant mother the young baby the first thousand days and so on. Then there are enabling problmes relating to food availability and food absorption India has been rather poor in investment in grain storage. ??? sixty million tons of wheat and rice with them The storage of a lot of it is not in good condition somehow the country has not made the investment in safet storage. Why you have every farm has a beautiful silo and so on. It has not been done, only now there is an interest And then the reform of the dairy industry is important Special features of this act an option of a life cycle approach with special attention to the first thousand days in a childs life. And recognition of woman as head of household In other words for the purpose of entitlement the women is concerned with the head of household I don’t want to give reasons for it because invariably the agreement is in the hands of the woman and goes to children and so on so the act provides of food entitlement for this purpose legal entitlement the woman as the head the household. The question of sustainability is an important one I had anticipate before the Green revolution was coined that we would be in difficulty. ?? Carson and others have pointed out that if you apply to much pesticide and fertilizer there are also negative consequences, what are the consequences. So in a lecture I gave in the India Science congress in January 1968 I elaborated happens to have an intensely cultivation of land of narrow bio diversity Genetic homegenity enhances genetic vulnerablity the press and diseases and to ground water explectation particularly the depletion of the aquifers the polution many of these problems that lead me to coin this term Green Revolution. The Green Revolution was a commodity centered approach Maybe corn maybe wheat maybe rice maybe millet and so on. And a larger light on the change in plant architecture and the physiological rhythm of the plant so that we can photo insensitive to some extent Dr. B?? interesting shadow breeding technic which lead to ??? insensitive also to be reduced greatly. ?? systems the plant arhitecture In fact a whole series of physiological architecture People started coming in and designing the plant … I will also come to it in a moment. The ever-green revolution I define as increasing productivity in ?? with ?? ecological harm there are two major parkways one is organic farming Organic agriculture provided you have a crop livestock integrated product. In India conditions if you have a crop or livestock it is more easy to take organic farming but many ?? from animals and so on. If you don’t have animals it becomes a difficult the compost is very expensive. So fertilizer you can give ??? more easily. Organic farming also the price differential the yeild will go down somewhat. but the price differential is as good as your market your special markets ?? are sold. You’ll get a little higher price the higer price then compensates for the lost in yield otherwise you up problem. Simularly Otherwise the green agriculture the difference between organic farming and green agriculture is in green agriculture you use integraged pest managment integrated ?? supply. Genetically modified crops are allowed but in organic farm is is not allowed Organic farming the maximine permission is for marketed assisted selection People like Mr. ??? they have said market assisted selection is allowed for certification certification of organic farming but it is really the ?? of technology to transfere ?? material then it is not eligible for certification But in the case of green agriculture all environmentally sustainable procedures can be adobpted There is a book that described this in detail Mainstreaming ?? libraries some copies. They published a recent book called Save and Grow saving all natural resources land water bio diversity this is what they call the road map for ever green revolution It’s an interesting guide book on what needs to be done in order to combine ecology and economics in technology development All that you are doing in the green revolution is mainstreaming ecology and technology development and dissemination so that your technology is basised on sound enviromental principles Many people talk about green revolution The green revolution happened in India fairly fast. People never expected, there were books including Poland and ? populations bomb ? William Padic. Their ?? India in the early 60s ?? India as an option except the ?? ship them out of existence. In fact in the year of 1966 we received or 10 million tons of wheat from the U.S. under the appeal for aid program at that time the largest If it would not have happed it would have been problem for us and so on but the green revolution which was offically announced in 1968 by the then Primister by releasing a special stamp called the wheat revolution. It started with the wheat. the shocked wheat ?? then selections were made in India for what we call ?? making of unleven bread because people don’t like very red color, very highly red so have to sell it by color according to the color ?? ?? community They have to finally the food processor and there fore you have to think of the the color characters of these material. We have major ingredients the symphony, the grain revolution symphany, they all came together. Technology the primore of change services to take the technology to the fields of small farmers. Public policies and input output pricing which will determine the economics of farming. If you don’t have an assured marketing, ?? marketing finally above all the farmers own enthusiasm. There’s a Punjab farmer, one of the leaders of what we call, National Demonstration Program. he demonstrated, you see, farmer to farmer learning has a higher cablility because the economics, they believe in the economics of farming. but among the various components, I think the political will and farmer skill. The farmer skill is all to determined by the support scientists give them but these two are very important to determine. Without it, if the political support mechanism are not there, this is why this year, two strong political leaders in favor of abolished ??. Mr. Lula, a former president of Brazil, and John Kufuor, former president of Ghana, will be honored in the next few with the World food prize this year because of a diliberate desicion that we must recognize the political contribution. without it, what other than maybe technology it will not strike roots and bare fruit. and hence the substrate conditions necessary for technology to spread will have to be developed. So political will and farmer skill are very important areas. Research is the prime mode of progress. It’s a continuous search in former days we were all the time looking at new pests and diseases, biotic stresses of various kinds I remember when I started my own work we were most mostly concerned with the various stripe rust, leaf rust, and browned rust and so on. But now gradually the yield component came in and the whole cities of technological discoveries. In the rice, for expample, first was the ?? hybridization program. ??? but, then came the semi-dwarf rice varieties which came from China. The DG ?? Dwarfing gene. Then china also made the other inportant contribution, of hybrid vigor, exploitiation of hybrid vigor. In a self pollinated crop like rice, when I did genetics, we never thought in self pollinated crop, we ca exploit hybrid vigor. But then, it was possible because of the discovery in the Hainan Island by ?? and was also a food prize recipient. He discovered the, the, what is called the ?? cytoplasm. And it started so, you find a continuous rise in the production potential of the crop. Largly because as I said the physiologist are also hard at work in designing new plant architecture which can use more efficiently sunlight more efficient the soil nutrients more efficient the water available and so on. And then transfer locate as much as possible the photosynthesis of the grain what they call a harvest index many times how much it goes. Now days more than fifty percent of the total photosynthesis goes to grain making. The old varieties only twenty to twenty five percent and you have whole cities of new design. There’s also hybirdized and now what is called super hybridize. That is hybirdized use 15 to 20 percent more yield. The superhybirdized used 25 … otherwise it is a continuous quest for improving the yield potential of crops. On the other hand, although this is happening there is a ?? support of agricutlure. and is again in more recent studies whether almost every part of the world ..Latin America, ?? And high income countries also declined in terms of total support for agricultureal research [857] Fortunatly there is little to ?? now in in c. g. i. Contunue to grow on international agriculture research. In my own country it is not bad as the support of ??? is good. Brazil is good in ?? and is a very strong organization. But not every where is the average of all countries but generally there is decline because of the economic conditions then government want cut down on… cut down they try to cut down on important issues like ….in the case of mitigating climate change because agriculture is according the ?? panel on climate change agriculture is suppose to ?? 20 to 25 percent while some people even say 30 percent. Other greenhouse gas problems in the world. How do really…. how do really sequestration carbon to the bioengineering ?? have been discussed We do not know what the implications will be but at the moment a lot of carbon is locked in the sea the global primary productive according to Dr. ??? from Ohio State University is about 120 gieger tons of carbon per year. The main thing is increasing soil carbon pool, about one ton per carbon hector per year. The olzone show a calculation increase for production by 30 – 40 million ton. In other words double ?? you lock up the carbon at the same time you have a higher yield. The agroforestry systems are again considered to be one of the important methods of trying to meet for both the short term and long term need. You have the short term food needs at the same time long term. The agrogrow forestry center at Nairobi says plant trees like faidherbia albidaiba, which is called a fertilizer tree They can lock up a lot of carbon in the soil. Mango groves along the cost. They are very efficient in terms of carbon sequestration. I’ll come to this later. So the mitigation can be done also the carbon dioxide and what is call international the red program reducing deforestation and promoting forestation and so you can sequest more carbon. Maintain from animals can be easily problem can be solved by biogas plans. You have a double advantage again. You look at a meeting at the same time as ??. [927] Thirdly, ammoniaworthization Really its not ?? and fertilizer application in paddy fields. rice fields that are also very much the ?? by means of slow release fertilizers. It can be named Q?? in India an important way of attacking the nitric sulfur. The bio gas plan if you fertilize the tree and the farm pond on every farm in ?? areas. The other traditional maters of cooping with climate change, these ladies for example in India They will never grow a single crop alone not the model culture. They will have two or three crops, one legume, they always haave a legume. Because they know it builds up soil fertility. At the same time they know the risk reduction Their agronomy is a risk reducing agronomy. Not the profit maximizing agronomy. The rist manimizing agronomy and that is very important in Both are important. Profit is important. But how to minimize risk by a growing several crops together. Then they grow a large number of varieties. They don’t grow a single pure variety. It may be today with seed ?? . It maybe become difficult but notice this lady in one of the poorer parts. She grows a number of varieties in her field. Largely because she feels if there is drought this variety will grow better and if there is one particular disease she knows why she is growing different plants. This lis local wisdom. When we started in 1962 or 63 the experimenting was on a large scale. The material sent by Norman ?? of Mexico. on on ?? One thing was clear at that time with the increase of fertilizer application you run a greater risk of rust attack So we had to first start planning on how you really checkmate the leaf rust for example for example What gene should go where. In other words like a good general is planning how to contain the enemy. We will have to contain also the problems of .. Now today … Norman ?? before he died, had been vary concerned with this particular rust called Ug99 Ug99 combating stem rest and fortunately now as a result of amnesia created wrote governments of where wheat was important warning them about the possibility of this new form of steam rust coming in. It came up to Pakistan he didn’t come to india but never less, maybe because of this breeders started looking for the ?? which are a sister to 99 the reason why is putting on because If there is not going to two centigrade more average temperature, than normal ?? ?? temperature was not important but ?? important well for example, earlier all of north india when they ? strip rust as important but once the temperature goes up the steam rust will also become important so be prepared for addressing the programs of stem rust. There is a question of potato. I think India produces more potatoes than Latin America which is the home of the potato. now there is a great danger because our potato production is depended up on production of seed potato which is virus free. Completely virus free seed potatoes. that at advantage is what do call aphid free season. the vector free season will be will be lost if we have a higher temperature. So we will have to go into much more poor potato seed. work is now in progress to find good potato varieties which can be grown by the TPS methodology. In other words every crop one has to see what.. even malaira, medical doctors say as a result of higher temperature that will be the problem of many ?? born. Human diseases also animal diseases ground diseases all of them may become, some of them not important may be come more important. Flooding, drought is one aspect flooding is another aspects fortunate in rice is on plant where you havea number of ?? it is a stemnet there would be about 150,000 varieties of rice selected by local people. The gene bank of the international Rice Institute holds more than 100,000 varieties of rice. They are well cataloged and studied the same is available at Ft. Collins …same materials available. This gene pool provides you with great opportunities for selecting material for different conditions. Submergence-prone…very sever submergence having re submergence or deep submergence The genetics have been studied now of submergence genes and you can then you can then use that combination of genes which are needed fodr their own purpose. Going futher down there is work in several labories in the world including the United States on how to reengineer photosnythesis to double up physiological efficient rice Rice is called a C3 plant unfortunately the weeds, the weeds that grow in the rice plot are all C4 plants. They have a greater advantage over the rice. and that is why C4 rice could increse rice yeild by 25 to 50 person, double water use efficiency improve nitrogen use efficiency and so on. C4 photosynthes is one few evolutionary mechanisms that that could very well be super combinations of benefits. There is a consorteum now lead by Dr. Quick from from IRI (International Rice Institute) There is also one ?? for insulating food security by promoting more and more local level food security system in other words region level a group of regions they double up the food security system we have done it we are doing it in the regent of ?? regent of ?? which is on the the hunger hot spots in India by promoting the local communities to have four different banks. Gene bank means in seed to on farm conservation of traditional varieties. varieties. Seed bank that own seed storages. Grain bank, again local grains many of them are not really rice but millets. (names several varietise) a whole series of millets and then finally a water harvesting bnak. Because the rain comes during the monsoon season and that is one way we find ??? of helping local commmunities to double up their own food and water systems. It is not one way or another but it is important too. For example, participant breeding becomes also important for sustainability. Because participating breeding means you work with farming families there own variety. Introduce the genes that are important. That will improve the yield or improve the quality or improve the system and so on. Both anticipated research… I talked about anticipated reserch and participated research. Participated research in particular for introducing the concept of sustainability variety diversity rather than one single variety. This group of people got an acredidation award atone single variety one single variety For the work on particpating breeding. ??? in south India where tuber crops are important Let me give you some examples of local level coping mechanisms agains ?? they have a whole series of dioscoreas an excellent kuber and they usually keep under the ground unless they are in need and then dig it out and eat it. Now these are fortunatly coming once again. In our old world strategy for management of climate change these local level strategies also become very important. The genetic erosion, recent article in National Geographic Magazine that put Noah’s ark, the food ark they called it. [1179] I will come to it in a moment One of the examples given a century ago in United States in 1930 commercial seed houses offered hundreds of varieties [1185] in the case of sweetcorn, cabbage, beet, lentils, muskmelons, and so on. but now 80 years later vary few are found. Fortunately some of them are being stored in seed collections. But, never less there is a gradual erosion it will come to two or three varieties dominating. Many are hybrids dominating everywhere. We have instituted an award in India, the government of India, called Genome Saviors. Genome Saviors to reconize and award local communities who have conserved genetic breeds of great value. They have been conserving…. Conservation is better it is tradition it is in their blood. They conserve, especially women, they are great conservers. Now these people tribel people, they are not educated, for example, this lady in the middle vary knowledgeable about the material there why they are conserving, what ?? they are conserving. Once when I was at IRI had ??? all the anthropologies from Yale. He was working with us he said you must come with me to Fugo???, Fugo is a famous place with rice terraces. because I want to introduce you to the best breeder in the world. Rice breeder. I went with him and he took me to one of these local ladies. Somebody like this and said a remarkable person in terms of selection and breeding. So I think the wisdom of trying to identify the varieties suitable to their own growing conditions and also their own characterics are important. Genetic anemia leads to human anemia and that is well known now in the case of micronutritients. There are different methods of storage. One if farmers own method on you’re right which shows the community on farm conservation Then you have gene banks colegenic gene banks then the Norweigen government has put up as you know what is referred to as the food ark, Noah’s ark. Where you can send material which is perserved for posterity. If it is under the perma-frost condition so not far from the North Pole a very cold place. The development of India, the friends of ?? organization has identified a similar place in the Himalayas in a place called ?? where we have put up now in the perma frost conditions long term genetic storage. That one day that perma frost is otherwise the modern gene banks very expensive. and electrity is very expensive too. These the condition if controlled by perma frost. These are so different motheds, but one thing putting in the gene bank only assures preservation. On the other hand putting it in the field is a conservatoin. Conservation is preservation plus evolution. Unless you have a lot of evolution also you don’t have so National mission on world for water, Dr. Milleken has kindly agreed to be an adivsor and this University will participate There is a reason to initiate the department of science and technology of the government of India in order insure war that must not be fight, winning augmentation and rennovation. ??? converting saline water into fresh water. standardizing methods of harnessing and managing rain water. Flood water research. Research on rain water harvesting and treatment of waste water. and ensure water secuity under conditions of climate instability. These are all aims of this program. Take for example, some of you a job related book wood read one of the highest rain fall in the world is in a place called Mayvalia in the northeast. 15 thousand milimeters of rain each year The largest Chirappunji. It is well known. but then if you go there for water in December or January you won’t get water. All the water comess between May-June till about September. Gradually now a program has been started in that area. for water harvesting and water retention. It is changing the entire situation. ???? water is locally called gelcorn and it is a very important area. Similarily there is a large program they are very short of grain legumns. Like chickpea, ????? and so on. The government has started over sixty thousand of what they call pulses villages The villagers themselves are helped or assisted are encouraged to promote rain water harvesting. Because these are all unirrigated areas. ?? and then you grow there and even if you got the hybrid the local women have organized and can sell ??? they can make there own seeds. They don’t have to go to the company every month and so on. Every season they don’t have to buy. So there are different methods for solving the problem. of rain water harvesting. growing the grain legumns. Why I mention grain legumns is the food inflation in India, they have a very important position. [1339] the cost of grain legumns is so high in a vegetarian diet they are the majore source of protein. and the cost is high ?? Lastly the other source of water is sea water. one of the consequences of climate change In India like the United States a very large
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shore line and we have island like ??? ?? so one has to get prepared for potential rise in sea level. Inundation of low lying costal lands. Several million hectors of land would be affected. Small islands, maldive for example The president of Maldive pointed out how Maldive is an endangered nation. It can go down, even had a dramatic meeting of the cabinet below the sea level In order to highlight to the media the importance of emhancement of title We didn’t have kind of tsunami as a japan had recently. Fukushima, atomic power plant but we had a very bad tsunami in 2004 fortunate the epic center of the earthquake was near Sumatra so we are a little far away. Near Sumatra one hundred thousand people died in this tsunami in 2004 In India alone about 13,000 women children and men died So fisherman started getting really worried about this tsunami. One thing they also was there was a very good mangrove forest that acted as a shield a bio shield The mangrove which people had lost interest suddenly they found it is a line to fight againist tsunami on coastal towns. Mangroves also provide very valuable
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genes for sea water tolerance, for salt water talerance. My collegues have several ?? ?? students have several U.S. Patents on genes, deydrin gene from avicennla from avicennla marina [1398] Fairly high salt tolerance. There are also drought tolerant genes from Prosopis juliflora a vary hardy plant in nature, in nature you get almost all zero?? all of them. and today it is possible to study them. and take the genes [1410] for dought tolerance. Yet again a number of genes have been take out of avicennla marina and so Prosopis juliflora. And they are all ??? if you are interested I’m sure that would be partnership in times of using these genes for ????? . We have a large program on sea water farming under this board for water Sea water comes to its 97th person otherwise water as a source. Because it is not an agroforestry system agri aquafarming ?? ??? A number of halophtes are available which are economical valuable. You grow them alone and then take a farm pond. One of then salicornia is widely grown. ?? content this high protein this high for animal feed. There are a number of halophtes So what we are doing now is we are double the genetic gardens of Halophytes 1,500 species that will be collected and conserved. The gene garden of halophytes has obligatory halophytes and facultative halophytes separately classified. Because in the future with ?? rice the potential sealable rice. One of much atticipated research is to use the halophytes Today you can also use it as for sea water farming in other words one aspect of water is augmentation of water supply Augmentation to the rain water harvesting and so on. But one of the large augmentations could be sea water. Sea water farming utilizing sea water for ?? I agree we have our fish culture and one cultdure of rice grown below sea level this is in Kuttanad. This is in the only part of India were cultivation is taking place about 6-7 meters below sea level Like the Dutch we don’t have that kind of complicated dikes. They are mud dikes, less expensive dikes but never less it becomes a very important source of income for them How to take all this imformation, what we call the know how do how gap. translation for research, how do you really take all this growing scientific information to the field. Information technology has become exceedingly important I think people like the two boys and so on will remember [1484] For example this man lost his life during tsunamie. They are afraid to go to the small scale boats. fisherman Today he has information before he gets into the boat on wave height, different distances and where the fish are. And so he goes with a great deal of confidents into the sea. Because he knows what what the wave hights and I watched these people The data provided by a department of space ion India an institute called In??? in National ?? service. Information service at Hydrobotum??, India These people say it is remarkably accurate. They didn’t believe in the beginning but then after a year, they said, this used to go int the sea. for about 10 hours looking for a fish. Now he comes back in two hours. So this is what they call a transformational technology. This is why there is so much morning Recently I discovered I-pod and so on and so on These are remarkable discoveries. in the world. ….. Rio + 20 is coming next year. [1516] One of the important…increasing the income of the people living in the bioresources areas and I call it the bio happiness because people talk about bio privacy bio terrorism and so on. I thought we could act a little cab?? by singing, we can also ?? happiness. ?? talking negatively ?? bio happiness is ?? bio ??? in jobs and income in an environmentally sustainable and socially equitable manner in other biodiversity hot spots into happy spots. from hot to happiness that’s a transformation of the ??? There is also need for more attention to soil this has become really important There two institutes Thanks to that German Institute Potsdam Conference reasonlly formed the Globol Soil Forum the Globol Soil Forum for enhancing investment on soil resources’ assessment and management and so on and strengthening institutional and human resources capacity. A ??? was also lunched at Global Soil Partnership there is already a group water partnership there is a new one only last month in september 2011 The rover soil partnership was launched in Rome. It is an inter government issue. if it was an intergovernment body the other one is a group of experts who got together in germany in Port?? and started the global soil forum both are important the aim of the global soil partnership is to prevent soil divergation soil health and enhancement conservation of prime farm land for agriculture, in other words a land use policy for every country. ?? it doesn’t exsit how much you want to divert to other purposes. The climate change gender dimension of land use. In Africa the food crop usually done by woman and the cash crops usually done by men. but the gender dimension must be mainstreamed and terms of land use soils fertility and health management. So the global soil partnership will provide a multi-disciplinary plateform for partnership. Next year the Rio + 20 they have chosen the theme green economy. and which includes a green economy and growth and global soil partnership and global water partnership are now considering joint, jointly together [1577] to launch a global land and water care movement to strengthen the ecological foundations essential for sustainable food security. Lastly I said the Rio + 20 June 2012 Conference in Rio de Janeiro they are preparing for it but the organizing secretary general as a result of ??? has said the major enphasis will be green economy In other words green economy is one where economics and ecology are married We have not one against the other. The green economy together with ?? your growth socially ?? your growth not ?? but ?? I have said ?? one of the recipes given by Gandhi he didn’t call it green economy. He said …Unsustainable lifestyles and unacceptable poverty should become prolems of the past, to achieve harmany with nature and each other. I think this is a very profound statement. both on sustainable lifestyle and acceptable provety. I think it is clear today… more more we see various parts of the world more unrest because modern media shows them how some people are living in great style others are in distress and therefore unstainable lifestyles also what is sometimes called ecological footprint as you know many of them ?? the economical footpring how much demand they are making on natural resources each one of, water bio diversity and so on how do we minimize our damand on natural resources each one of us so we can live within the supporting population supporting the best of the ecosystem. So ladies and gentleman I think this whole area of preparation for ?? food security has become top and now I’m happy to say top on the global political agenda. In fact I mentioned earlier the committee I chair was asked by CFS to take on four topics for study two we have finished and submitted report Price volatility and and food security and ?? and ?? and international investment. The other two will be next year. One is social support system like, what is called India Act there is also a Brizilian Act, Mexico has an Act and so on How do you make access to food a little ?? The other is climate change and food security. So that these four were selected as priority areas for conservation.. climate change, food security, social support systems and price volatility and land use and I’m so happy to get some of these ideas shared with you as I said all is unknown to you but never less to my scientific collegues I would say the most important thing is anticipated ?? Norman Volog?? had not been born in the world in ?? 99 People say why is he making such fuss then they started spreading ?? He said when I was child I seen the damage being done to the wheat crop ..the rust disease. and now it should not happen again because of that to one morning the anticipated research programs started identify the genes for a system and in 99 incorporated them and so on. Just as I say in the case of sea level rise we can’t be waiting for the sea level to go up we need to think of what to do how to get the maggrove forest established How to get the sea water used for the proper plants and so on so a lot of challenges. Challenges provides an opportunity and I see western Nebraska is flate addressing needs and taking advanatage of new opportunities Thank you very much [1684] Ronnie Green: We do have a few minutes for some questions for Dr. Swaminathan I should have said earlier when we started the lecture this afternoon the lecture was live streamed on the web so that many could join us around the world on the web for the time with Dr. Swaminathan we also have it archieved so that others join us in the future and NET will be airing this in a couple months as well we have time for a couple of questions Are there questions from the floor are there some questions from the for our speaker I think we have mikes both up and down. No We do have one additional thing we want to do this afternoon It is not often this happens at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and we have a great privilage this afternoon to bestole an honor up on Dr. Swaminathan since to 2000 the university of Nebraska-Lincoln has on occassion conferred the Willa S. Cather medal on individuals who words and actions uphold the highes values of humandity and service to the world at large And I think you can see from Dr. Swaminathan career and his thinking and what he has done around the world, that he is very deserving of such an honor. Willa Cather is Nebraska’s most international renoun author she has received preeminence by express the very special relationship among persons facing the challenges of the frontier The medalian baring her name honors person who have responded creativelly to the frontiers of human rights the humanities or the arts. Willa Cather graduated from the Univesity of Nebraska in 1894. she is best known for her novels about frontier live on the great plains. She sensitively protrayed the hardships, joys, frustration and successes of european american immigrants who moved to the plains in the late eighteen hundreds. In nineteen twenty three Cather received the Pulitzer Prize for fiction for her 1922 novel .. One of Ours which was set during World War I. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln holds a large scolar archeive of Cather’s writings her letters and other items Is home to the digital Willa Cather archeives And numerous UNL scholars are engaged in ongoing scholarships concerning Cather and her works That Collection continues to grow as our audience will know recently. To give you some idea of the prominent of this honor past recipients who have receive the Cather Medal from UNL include Harry Belafonta Archbishop Desmond Tutu Mikhail Gorbachev Justice Sandra Day o’connor Anne Truitt Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg and former secretary of commerce Peter G. Peterson so we are very pleased on behalf of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Chancellor Harvey Perlman this afternoon to add to that list Dr. Swaminathan Please join me in appreciation. [1768] [1769] [1770] [1771] Thank you, thank you very much I feel very honored. Coming from the University of Nebraska and the history of this medal. Thank you all who decided to confir this to me I will treasure it and the wonderful time I have had here think you again my great appreciation to everyone… the president the faculty, the staff and this college You all make human kind proud You are all wonderful members of this human family Thank you very much for what you are thank you. [1796] Thank you very much for being here this afternoon and being part of this first lecture November 10 is the date of the next lecture at 4 p.m. in the Great Plains Room of the Nebraska East Union stephen Baenziger one of our faculty in agronomy and horticulture will be delivering that lecture He also will be receiving the universities first presidential chair that day so we welcome you for November 10 at 4 p.m. Thank you for being here.

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