Articles

TEDxRosario – Julieta Gayoso – Las innovaciones textiles del futuro



Translator: Robert Tucker
Reviewer: Sebastian Betti Right, so, I'm going to take you
through some important developments. Not only those relating
to the textile industry but also those generally relating
to other industries and began at the end
of the past century with the development
of information sciences, nanotechnology and molecular biology. And the great synergies that
these three sciences can produce to create materials
with unlimited possibilities. Here we compare nanofibres with a human hair,
so you can see the scale with which nanotechnology works. We're talking about very small dimensions, that may, among other things, transform the surface of fibres,
allowing for new functions, new features. And we also obtain other benefits —
in nanoscales. For example, we know that silver
has great antimicrobial properties. That's why cutlery
used to be plated with silver. And, by adding silver nanoparticles
to clothes, we gain healing properties
which are very potent, very important for health services, for example. Phase-changing materials. Here we are talking about substances — generally salts or organic compounds — which are in general
environmentally friendly, which are contained within polymers,
within membranes, also at the nanoscale,
and are incorporated in fabrics. The function of these
phase-changing materials is to absorb heat and change state so that the heat is not transmitted to the body. In a very hot environment,
for example, on the outside these materials absorb heat and create
a very agreeable microenvironment, between the garment and the skin. Conversely, when the external environment
is very cold these materials release heat leaving the skin warm. This comes from research
into materials for space suits, astronauts being subject to very extreme
differences of temperature. It can also provide
for the heating of environments, it is used for the air-conditioning
of buildings, automobiles and so on. These are materials
of great benefit for extreme climates. In shape-shifting materials,
the material may, for example, have a flexible form,
but maintain a memory of a rigid form. This shape change can be
activated by temperature, by magnetic field,
by electricity, by light. For example, the company Dow Corning
developed a motorcycle suit that is flexible and very comfortable but
with a sudden movement the fabric remembers its rigid form and,
in the case of an accident, absorbs the shock
throughout the whole body, transforming it into
a very strong protective armour for the person riding a motorcycle. And, speaking of shapes,
we can create garments instantly, on the skin, by using
the shape of the body. Here we have Fabrican, an aerosol
with cotton dust that can create cloth
over the body whenever desired. Also optical fibres can be applied to
the construction and structure of clothes. It can be used ornamentally,
just to illuminate. It is also possible to project images
in the optical fibre and to use the garment
as a graphical interface. If a small monitor is inserted
in the back or the side, which could be hidden,
then we can visualize any type of image from the Internet or videos,
on a PC, cell phone, etc. This is used greatly in camouflage suits
that are being developed where a camera is put
in the back of the garment to film images from behind which are
then projected on the front and in this way achieves
a kind of invisibility suit. This comes from a need for camouflage
and guess who asked for it. It wasn't Harry Potter,
although that might be fun. However, technology is not just working
with very innovative materials but also with the recovery
of natural sources of fibres. In the textile industry
there are two main divisions. One is synthetic fibres: Polyesters, polyamides, nylon, Lycra. They are all by-products
of the oil industry. On the other hand we have natural fibres,
animal or plant derived. Sometimes they are treated with agrochemicals
and various chemical processes harmful to the environment. Now we work a lot with biomaterials. They are sources of natural resources,
which are sustainable, biodegradable, biocompatible, compostable — of course — that have particular properties
that are transferred to the garment after certain processes. For example, bamboo fibre. Bamboo grows very quickly, uses very
little water and doesn't need pesticides because it has a biosubstance that is
naturally antimicrobial, antibacterial. This property is transferred
to the garment; from the fibre to the yarn,
to the fabric and to the garment. Naturally, without the addition
of another product. An antimicrobial property
in a garment brings a reduction in odour, bacterial growth,
and a sense of freshness. It is, of course, antiallergic. We also have bioplastics that
instead of being the result of many chemical reactions in the oil industry,
are extracted from dextrose, from corn sugar,
that is processed with enzymes. These create a lot materials
which are used to make containers, as well as textiles. They have properties like being
oil-repellent or stain-resistant. We also have Tencel,
a fibre that is extracted from eucalyptus wood pulp. It has antistatic properties
and therefore does not pick up any type of fluff, any type of pollution
and further we avoid any nasty static discharges. Another fibre, Sasawashi,
a mixture of grasses and waste paper, has antimicrobial properties. Another fibre, Omikenshi,
comes from crustacean shells, which are obtained directly
from the waste of factories processing seafood. They are super-healing materials. They are used as suture,
in hospital clothing and in cases of scar care, permanently in the body and the skin. In addition to the rediscovery
of natural fibres, we work on recycling fibres to reuse textile material, to give it
another form and texture. Progress is being made
with recycled polyester from bottles, products that have no compostable form
and in this way we are making t-shirts
from two recycled bottles. We also have treatments for fabrics to give them different properties. In the case of plasma treatment, a fabric
is subjected to inert gases in an atmospheric vacuum, which produces
nanochanges on the surface of the fabric, such as a very high impermeability
in the given material, better surface smoothness,
antibacterial properties. By working with enzymes
we save using chemicals for the application of colour to fabric. There are also microencapsulations
with diameters of 5 to 20 nanometres, they are containers of membranes
that inside have all kinds of substances. We can put, for example, antibacterials, insect repellents, perfumes,
essences, aloe vera, vitamins. The release of these products
contained in the microcapsules may occur by friction
or by heat and is gradual. It will not wash out nor alter
the softness or the feel of the fabric, adding a lot
different possibilities. An interesting branch of research
is biomimicry, that comes from bios — life,
and mimesis which is to imitate. It is a biologically inspired discipline
that seeks sustainable solutions to different problems based on nature and on what nature teaches us
from 3800 million years of evolution. In these times of crisis
in which society and industry holds we need to rethink forms of work, biomimicry offers sustainable
solutions and a way to respect nature and to imitate it. Far from those ways which try
to exploit and to dominate nature, this offers a different way
of gaining inspiration for us while at the same time being mindful
to maintain the biodiversity of the world, ours but not only ours. Within this branch we have Velcro, a contact closure by means of bristles. Velcro was discovered
when Mr. Mestral, its discoverer, had walked his dog in the mountains
and found his dog covered in these spines
when he returned home. And the bottom of his trousers too. When he looked at these little things
under the microscope, he saw little hooks that could catch
on whatever other looped material or fluff they came into contact with. So, he create Velcro and solved
a lot of fastening problems closing without using a zip fastener. What can the lotus flower teach us? It was thought that
the smoother a surface was, the less the chance of contact. The lotus flower breaks
with the hygienic paradigm because it has microridges
that prevent dirt or any other particles from entering it. And when it rains,
the drops do not adhere, but engulf the particles
held on the surface and clean the leaf and lotus flower. From this, in imitation of the lotus flower,
we make nanoridged surfaces that are self-cleaning without the use
of detergents or chemicals, simply imitating those textures
that prevent dirt from sticking. The droplets remain suspended because
there is nowhere for them to adhere and in the case of clothing
besides being self-cleaning, is completely waterproof. Sharks are one of the largest predators and I would not like
to meet one of them on the beach. They are great teachers,
predating dinosaurs. They have lived for 400 million years
on this planet. They need to swim constantly
because they have no swim bladder and to do this they have to
minimize energy expenditure. When you examine the skin
of a shark on the nanoscale you see that it has jagged particles,
flakes, that channel the water flow over it as it swims creating a superior aerodynamic. And, to add to that,
having a surface that is not smooth, no ectoparasites can stick to it. Not only as a result of
these nanoridges but also because in channeling the water,
the velocity of the water is such that there is less time
for them to stick. Imitating shark skin,
paint coatings were created, for exterior use and above all
for boats which means that at 4 or 5 knots
the hull is completely self-cleaning and also the adherence
of microorganisms is prevented without using biocides,
without encouraging resistance to bacteria and microorganisms and preventing
the transfer from one geographical area to another of these bacteria
and ectoparasites that are in the water. In the case of textiles,
the company Speedo makes swimsuits with shark skin that has improved
swimming speed by 3%. The butterfly displays some pretty colours
and under the microscope you find that they are the result of visual effects
of light diffracted on the scales that compose the butterfly wing. This leads to the development
of colour coatings that do not use pigments. Pigments contain solvents
and other aggressive substances but in this way different colours can be produced without having to use harmful products. We've all seen a spider web
at some time in our lives and, especially when we were kids, it seemed wonderful. There is a spider which is the champion weaver,
the golden orb weaver, that weaves a web invisible to our eyes and is able to catch a bird in flight. Its thread is 5 times stronger than steel, is 3 times more impact resistant than Kevlar — a fabric that is used for bulletproof vests and safety-belts, and can stretch in length by 40%
and return to its original shape. It is a fibre, a thread, that,
with all the technology available, cannot be imitated.
Super strong, but super flexible. How to produce it? Spiders cannot be raised in farms because of its habit of eliminating
all its neighbours. So scientists in conjunction
with the U.S. Navy decided to take the spider gene and put it into a sheep.
This sheep secreted milk with these particles of spider silk
that through certain processes is transformed into this fibre,
so strong and flexible that today it is used in parachutes,
structural cables in the construction of bridges and in a lot of other industries where these materials are required. And returning to information science,
technology itself, there is a generation of new textiles
in the field of microelectronics. The electronics can always be implemented at the small-scale level, it is flexible. It an even be washed many times;
it is resistant to contact with water. So, it provides for a whole new raft
of clothing products with different benefits. Like garments with sensors
for use in medicine, rhythm control, performance control,
electronic device control, in signage, to increase thermal capacity. This jacket has a thermal fabric
that produces heat. In the application
of solar panels to clothes, to be able to generate portable energy,
clean energy. In this case solar panels
were applied to nomadic tribes. Technology offers us
a host of new possibilities; new developments, that are applicable
not only to the textile industry, but that can find application
in other industries, and may change the patterns of the sector. It means multidisciplinary work,
in partnership with other disciplines, because all the time
it is becoming more complex. However, the complexity also produces
a final product that is much more interesting, more functional, allows textiles —
our partners 24 hours a day — to make a greater contribution, much more than simply being
a matter of aesthetics or a fashion item. We can provide you with something of benefit,
something with function. And most important to me
is that all these paradigm shifts in science and technology sooner or later bring about shifts
in cultural paradigms in society. And these big turning points
are opportunities to rethink our working methods, the way in which
we address our businesses and especially to develop new methods that lead to new ways of conquering our work. Thank you very much. (Applause)

7 Comments

  1. Finacid Naturel

    La felicito por la capacidad de tanta inteligencia que Dios le dió muchas gracias todo esto es un inicio para un grupo de mujeres que queremos innovar para el futuro

    Reply
  2. yatay pringles

    esta persona es hermana del narco Jorge Gayoso pueden buscar el caso "Mansion Verde", ademas de narco esta persona quiso comprar un bebe a una chica de formosa… la familia gayoso son unos negreros en su empresa textil.

    Reply
  3. Sabrina Gutierrez

    Pero el paradigma de respetar el derecho de los animales, como las ovejas modificadas , ese cuando va a aparecer? Su crianza es intensiva e inmoral?

    Reply

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