Articles, Blog

The IPM Toolbox: Fire Blight IPM Using Non-Antibiotic Control Methods

Welcome to the Northeastern IPM Center fire blight IPM using non-antibiotic control methods on this full afternoon. I
hope you are doing well and that this is going to be a really interesting
presentation. We’re really excited to have three wonderful researchers with us
to share findings from that project. So a recording of this webinar
will be available within a week at that link here and also anyone who’s
registered for this webinar will get a copy of the recording when it’s
available so if you don’t get a chance to listen all the way to the end I’ll
send you an email with with the link going forward. We ask that you use
the Q&A feature rather than the chat if you have a question so to show you how
to do that if you scroll over your screen you’ll see a menu bar that comes
either at the top of your screen or at the bottom and there’s something in
the middle that says Q&A and that’s like a little file folder there. If you click
that you can ask a question and you can ask it anonymously there’s an option
where you can just check the box and it will have it be anonymous for you. We ask
you to use that feature rather than the chat feature because it’s easier for us
to keep track of the questions and we already have 43 people on the
line and we have quite a lot of people registered for this so it’s easier for
us to keep track and please ask questions at any time and we’ll be
taking some breaks along the way so that so we can answer your questions. So I
should introduce myself. I’m Jana Hexter and I work at the Northeastern IPM
Center and it’s my pleasure to be with you this afternoon. We also have with
us Quan Zeng, who is an agricultural scientist with the Connecticut
Agricultural Research Experiment Station. Dan Cooley who is professor at the
University of Massachusetts Amherst and Neil Schultes the agricultural scientist at Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, and we’re delighted
to have all three of them here today. On the agenda today — the next slide we
will see that — there’s a general introduction to fire blight, an
overview of control strategies, some non-antibiotic trial results, and
considerations and recommendations to be thinking of if you are considering these
options, and then plenty of time for questions. But before we dive into the
agenda we are going to ask you some questions, and Kevin in the background there we go . . . So you should see a poll come up
on your screen and there’s a few questions here and if you could answer
those there is no right answer there’s no wrong answer.
It just gives us an idea of who is here and your level of interest and
experience before we go in and we’re going to give you about three minutes to
answer these questions and so I’ll just be quiet while that happens. You have to
answer all of the questions before they submit, you can’t really skip one, but
please don’t be concerned. You just take your best guess. If you’ve just joined us, please feel
free to participate in the poll that you see on your screen. There are no right or
wrong answers. It’s just information for us and you can submit it once you’ve
answered each of the questions and there’ll be a time another minute where
we’re just going to give people time to read through and answer the polls Great we’ll just give it 30 seconds more
and then we’ll show the results of the poll and if you’re just joining us
please feel free to answer the poll questions that you see on the screen So I’m going to end the poll, and Kevin if you can show us the results that would be
fantastic. So you can see here most people are not using streptomycin or
it’s not applicable, probably researchers or extension agents. The vast
majority people are very interested or extremely interested in this topic the
biggest concern for people is streptomycin resistance and the
biggest concern about using an alternative method is that it would be
less effective than streptomycin and the second is that you have a
lack of knowledge about good alternatives
so hopefully this presentation will help give you some more information so you
can make good choices and so with that I’m going to turn it over to Quan Zeng,
and Quan you’re going to have to take yourself off mute so folks
can hear you and we’ll begin the presentation Terrific we can hear you You can hear me okay? Great. Thank you Jana and the Northeastern IPM Center for giving us
this opportunity that we can share our results and also I hope this webinar
will provide a platform not only for us to share our results but also I know
many of you guys are researchers or extension agents in the same area and we
all have a passion in providing you know helping the growers provide some
good alternatives for disease control. I hope this can be a platform of
communication and interaction and knowledge-sharing. So first I would
like to give a brief introduction on fire blight for some of the folks that
are not familiar with this disease. Fire blight is a disease of plant it’s a
disease occurring on rosaceous plants in addition to our most familiar hosts
such as apple and pear it also can occur on many other wild hosts and also
landscape plants such as quince, loquat, plum, crabapple, Indian hawthorn, rose, mountain ash, service berry, and some small fruits such as raspberry and blackberry.
And the causal agent of this disease is the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora and in the infected tissues often appear as blackened or
brown in color, which quickly wilt, shrivel, and dry. Two characteristic
symptoms that are often used for diagnosis are shepherd’s crook and ooze
droplets. So here are some some of the pictures are showing disease symptoms on
a variety of host plants and some of those white host and
landscape plants can also serve as the source of inoculum and also pathways for
the pathogens to transmit between archers fire blight is an old disease
that could be dated back to the late 1700s
however the occurrence of fire blight in recent years has seems to increase and
the damage seems to be more severe and this for a large part is could be due to
the the fact that we adopted the high-density orchard planning system the
high density planting obviously significant significantly increased our
efficiency in fruit production and also improved the fruit quality but but at
the same time it also increases the risk of fire blight for a number of reasons
number one is that the per acre value of a high-density orchard is much higher
than a traditional orchard in the high-density setting more than 1,000
trees are densely packed in an acre of land which compared to about 200 to 300
trees per acre in a traditional planting and if you consider one tree would cost
you usually about 15 bucks just for trees alone acre of high density
orchards they cost you up to 20 K which is about four times higher than the
traditional planning secondly the distance from the shoot tip to the
cinder st. pauli either is much shorter on a 12-inch field day on a traditional
tree which means it is much easier for the pathogen a Winnie I’m in évora
to get into the central leader from the initial infection a site of infection
and for 12 trees the tolerance of fire blight infection is quite low because
once you the central leader is infected a tree is pretty much dead and has to be
removed and that dwarfing trees can start producing at a much earlier stage
than traditional trees often at a 3 year old trees can start producing so in
order to drive the central leader to the top wire in the trellis system the
growers often adopt high density natural sorry a high nitrogen fertilization
program so that so the central leader can reach stop fire by year 2 or year 3
which this high nitrogen fertilization also is known to increase to increase
hosts susceptibility to fire blight and finally many dwarfing rootstocks
such as the famous m9 m26 or partner are either highly susceptible or susceptible
to fire blight in addition to this high-density orchard adoption another
factor that may also makes it more challenging to manage fire blight is the
climate climate change which increases the Amin temperature during bloom and
also over the summer month as we all know that the telogen grows at a much
higher rate at a higher temperature than at the lower temperatures so that also
increases the chance of fire blight infection so how can we develop an
effective management program against fire blight in 10 Pathology we all know
that in order to have a plan disease to occur three components need to be
fulfilled at the same time a society will host a virulent pathogen and in an
environment that is fear able to the infection to occur so why
that we can limit the disease occurrence is to reduce the host susceptibility by
growing less susceptible apple varieties or use fire blight resistant root stocks
as much as possible we can apply systemic acquired resistant inducers as
they are inducers to boost the hosting community we can use some of the growth
regulators such as Apogee to limit the vegetative shoot growth and those are
also helpful to reduce the susceptibility and finally try to avoid
over fertilizing your trees to make those that would also be helpful to
reduce costs that really the most commonly used
strategy to limit disease is to target the pathogens the pathogens can be
killed on plant surface by spring antibiotics or other organic or
non-organic bacterial size and biological controls or they can be
removed by pruning when the pathogens are internally present in the shoes and
branches some researchers also have tried using various inhibitors to
suppress variants prevalence appearance and use that as a strategy to to limit
the disease occurrence currently it is those strategies are on their field
trials and and already showed some promising results and another way we can
another way we can another way is that we can use these these prediction models
to time the strap applications to when the environment is the most favorable
towards infection so where are the provisions in the cycle
of disease during the dormant season the pathogen cells are mostly within the
canker tissue that can be removed from pruning and during the early spring
prevalence cells start to emerge the plant surface and can be dust can be
targeted by antimicrobial straight such as copper or oxalate during bloom the
pathogens grows apathetically on the flower surface thus can be targeted by
antibiotic biological controls or other products through a spring and blossom
blight represents a timing when the pathogens the apathetically present
pathogens are internalized into the host and from then until the rest of the
growing season the pathogen cells are predominantly present in the xylem and
the Prima tissue that can mostly be removed
through pruning however some cells may submerge emerge to the SIRT plant
surface as pools so they can be targeted by a copper or oxy however copper and
oxidate application may cause federal toxicity and rustling so need to be used
in caution to me there are three situations that could use a copper spray
after bloom which are when you may be when you have a tons of should blight or
overwhelmingly have a whole lot of supplies in your orchard and go is to
salvage fees instead of producing fruits or when you are you can use copper on
young trees that are younger than three years old then you are not expecting
them to produce any fruits or you can use that on some some processing apples that rust me it’s
not an issue so managing fire blight is really a year-round year-round strategy
starting from winter and early spring and prune off the cankers use copper to
sterilize canker surface until bloom when we use antibiotics parasites and CR
inducers and biological controls to control the pathogen growth and fire
plus implied infraction and after petal fall research has shown that the
products not dying calcium which is the Apogee can be very useful to live in
Schrute growth and reduce hostess ability and when when you see the in
fact these shoots in the summer just prune them off and let them dry or burn
down and recently there are some researchers
showing that once you have half a tons of fibrous food bladder infection you
can sometimes use the active guard paint paint a concentrated the formulation of
active guard on the on the removed canker which can help to prevent anchor
from reoccurring or you can spray Appaji or to even you have to blind already
maybe the tankers of later later on the canker formation can be reduced and in
this project we are mostly focusing on the applause amber applied management
which is to try to see are there other products of the antibiotics can be very
useful to control blossom light so why do we need more than strength myosin
strata medicine seems like it’s working great and very not expensive either so
number one is motivation is that the myosin resistance has emerged and it is
reading and so far it has reached or have been absorbing most of the Apple
producing regions in our country including the Pacific Northwest the
western United States and in Michigan and recently in New York so in 2015 to
2016 16 we performed a service truck maizing resistance survey in the New
England region and we actually did not find any resistance in our in our part
of the country which is the good news for every however we want to keep the
situation this way using other non-antibiotic strategies will be
creating managing antibiotic resistance the second motivation is that for our
organic growers who cannot use any any antibiotics after October 2014
so what can we tell them how can the pro apple organically especially in the
eastern United States things are very challenging and so this
would be a good option for those growers as well so I
we are trying to break the presentation into two parts so this is the first part
before I move into the future so are any people do you have any questions or
input or comments yep I can see there are actually one is a comment and I’ll
meet that for us from Stephen Vivian airship rich farm in Maine he said he
fled organic but he’s looking for a good tank makes an effective alternatives to
streptomycin so he’s in the right place and and then and actually so he said
Apogee has aggressive retention effects and is recommended at the very time we
want to apply PG our thinners will you present research results on effective
Apogee usage in alternation with PG are thinning agents so the fire blight is
suppressed and one chemistry doesn’t contract the other the new and then have
any comment I would say that we didn’t get into the Apogee piece so that’s
question is still out there I the focus on what we were looking at were
materials that would be acceptable in organic production systems and I would
would give us some decent control so Apogee I think that there are concerns
of Apogee can especially on young trees if you use Apogee you are gonna slow
down the vegetative growth it’s a less desirable but but I think the decision
has to be made based on for example the history of your orchard we do have fire
blight in the past and how desperate you are and what houses that well your
varieties are so maybe if you are really strong
with fire blood in your orchard and also you are having to be a very simple
variety you know then and then perhaps allergy is a good option and housing via Kerry Cox and Jordan many other
researchers have shown that already application of Apogee can be very
effective in limiting the true black stage of infection however like a like I
also think that blossom flight management is also critical so II to me
if you already manage the platform light and you don’t really have a whole lot
won’t have a whole lot of a sous-vide to begin with in theory so that’s why we
in this project we are only focusing on the class on black stage of infection
thank you we have one other question but I think we’ll save that for the next Q&A
period so we can do our time line so saying if you’d like and if you’d like
to say carry on that would be fantastic okay so in our project we are working on
the now antibiotic materials so there are mainly two categories of such
materials one is the so called now antibiotic bacteria size that are
including copper contact sterile and lime sulfur or the potassium potassium
aluminium sulfate for coppers traditionally fixed coppers are more
used in seafood disease management however in recent years there are some
of the newer soluble coppers such as Cueva copper soap and and the pre list
all those chemicals are using reduced metallic copper
content thus has a lesser chance to cause vital toxicity to the trees for
contact sterilants the most popular ones are oxidate a 2.0 by a bio safe or
sometimes you can there’s a new version the oxidate tree and vine and are also
available many parallel controls with the active ingredients including
bacteria viruses and yeasts are also available for controlling fire blight so
here we are really trying to answer two questions one is that one product would
work the best in North East under our soil and weather conditions and the
second are we able to further enhance the efficacy by combining those two
categories of materials that I just mentioned so it is important before I
could move on it’s important also to understand that those two categories of
material actually have different modes of action the non-antibiotic but he
resides can immediately suppress pathogen growth red right away after
application however the for the biological control
materials especially for those bacteria and each day ingredient products you
often have to allow one or two days for the material to propagate on the flowers
so then you will have the antimicrobial effect so our field trial is a was set
up our work was performed on 25-year old apple trees Red Delicious or codon
smoothie for each treatment we included four reps and assign those reps in a
complete randomized design and the Lockwood farm of Connecticut
Agricultural Experiment Station and in it has the four different biological
control products double nickel which has a Pasillas bacteria as the active
ingredient flight ban 8506 which is Pseudomonas fluorescens plus unprotect
which contains a yeast are actually two East’s trains block bloom time
biologicals with pantoja agglomerates a bacterial ingredient as the active
ingredient we also tested two non-antibiotic Panthera size Cueva
copper soap and oxidate which is the hydrogen dioxide formulated the contacts
there and we compared those treatments for bright blossom blossom blight
potential effect with the positive control which is the firewall the stress
rising standard and the negative control the water treated control so as I
mentioned the biological controls need time to to develop on flowers so those
so those materials were applied twice once at 40% and then again at 70% of
bloom the organic chemicals those bacterial cells were also applied twice
once at 100% bloom and then 24 hours after so the goal is to use those
biological control to occupy the flowers first and then use the organic chemicals
or bacteria size to to hit the bacteria one more time at the end of the bloom
are are ready at the foot boomer and end of the bloom to further reduce any any
bacteria that escaped from those biological controls and we inoculated
all the trees with an artificial inoculation of a Winnie Emil évora at
the concentration of 10 to the CFU per ml and the 100% bloom all
applications were put down using a motive motorized the solo backpack
sprayer three weeks later we went back to the orchard and rated the disease by
Counting the percentage of blighted flower clusters and this is the the
results of the 2017 field trial in 2017 the disease pressure is pretty high for
the water treated control about 60% of the flowers developed fire blight
symptoms compared to that scrutinizing treatment was able to reduce that number
down to about 20% and reduction in disease were observed on trees treated
with organic been here inside whoever and oxidate however the reduction is
just the marginal it’s not a very significant for the biological controls
bloom time and double nickel did not provide a significant reduction in
disease percentage however the blossom protect the East product performed
pretty well especially when you use Bella blossom product together with
oxalate it provided protection similar to the level of strata myosin did we
also observed that Cueva and the oxidate has a very effective reducta can
effectively enhance the biological controls disease control efficacy this
the case for blossom projects when you see when you use
Cueva or oxidate with blossom product the disease percentage is further
dropped a similar situation were also observed for another parallel to control
the blossom will bloom time biologicals oxidate seems to perform a little bit
better than Cueva in this situation in 2018 we really had a light year of
disease in Connecticut so as you can see the water treatment only had 32 percent
of the blighted flower clusters and under such low disease pressure
situation almost all the biological control treatment provided a desirable
protection against the fire blight and plus on product exceptionally perform
exceptionally well and it even showed a lower disease percentage compared to
those strata myosin so in 2019 again we had a another pre-flight year of
infection and as we can see here plus on product again surpassed the Strand
Magazine in reducing the blossom blight infection when we use the blossom
project together with oxidate it provided a similar level of protection
so doesn’t really mean that the additional application of oxidate is
maybe not necessary or can we just use blossom tract by itself would that be
sufficient it would be sufficient for the situation in 2019 but in years with
the higher disease pressure like this year in 2015 we actually saw that
Plus unprotect and blossom product with oxidate there is a pretty big difference
showing that this one the additional applications of oxalate is really gonna
be helpful in years with higher disease pressure to further drop down that to
further hit that bacteria heart again right before the infection would occur
to clean off those bacteria that escapes from biological control so so far the
parallel controls are the organic control management strategies works
fairly pretty well are there gonna be situations that they are not gonna be
working so well well in our field while we we did observe the one-year in
Massachusetts now the about biologicals our organic
control method a work in 2017 and Dan Cooley and his his crew performed the
trial in 2017 but the disease didn’t take off so 2018 they might added a
little bit more inoculum and that this is pressure happened to be just perfect
for the disease to take off so as you can see for the under such a high
disease pressure the in the water treated control almost 100% of the
flower clusters got a fire blight and even strode amazing treatment Quinn the
rescue it still about 40% of the flower clusters got disease and on there such a
high disease pressure now the organic treatment practices provided any
meaningful control against fire blight but still a some of the plus and protect
in combination with the now antibiotic parasites Cueva and ox they still
performed better than the other organic materials so here is the summary of the
performance of blossom protect and applause on products oxidate seems like
those two two strategies works the best in our five years of trials over here
those numbers represent the performance of those products equivalent to the
percentage of control provided by extreme icing over the five years the
overall effectiveness of plots on protect when use alone is about 69
percent strength to the Strand Magazine strength when you when we use blossom
product together with oxidate that number is a 92% which is pretty pretty
nice and if we remove this year of 2018 Massachusetts because the Strand
Magazine didn’t even work that that great this number could be even higher so summer summary of the food
observations Clausen project provided pretty consistent and high level of
protection against the blossom blight second the control effect of blossom
protect can be further enhanced by when used together with other organic
bacterial sites such as oxidate and the quiver and other biological organic
chemical products can provide some level of control and can be useful when the
disease pressure is low but when when I did this pressure is super high it often
couldn’t be sufficient so here are some of our recommended the control protocol
based on our observation during the midterm to poop put down two applications of blossom
project and make sure you use spot for project in this situation because buffer
protect is that like a citrate formulation of material and drop down
the pH to make it unfavorable to for the pathogens to grow and add half of full
bloom put down one application of 25% oxalate this will really clean off all
the escaped bacteria from the biological control and if you if the disease
pressure is high or if you have fire blight in your orchard in the past
consider putting down another application of of oxidate 24 hours after
bloom so we think the the plot on project is essential for this management
protocol whereas the oxidated application applications can subject to
adjustment based on the disease prediction models depending on the
weather you have a light year of disease or or heavy year of disease as we show
that a lot years just los antrax should be sufficient but on a heavier year you
might need someone further assistance of oxidate so is this gonna be a silver
bullet of Firewise disease management well there are a couple of limitations
obviously everything has limitations first of all is the the cost
currently the the organic treatment materials cost about twice as much as
strep let alone you know there are other considerations such as the labor and
timing during bloom who you are very busy with scab control thinning you know
how can you find so many days of application for for the organic but you
know there’s that’s the one limitation even the cost is higher than
strap but it still be as a considering organic treatment can have the
perspective of managing the antibiotic resistance it still would be cheaper
than when you have strap resistant in your orchard and you have to rely on
other and alternative such as consuming to to manage fire blind which is about
three times higher than strap another limitation is the the risk of fruit
rusting when applied on their humid conditions plus on protect and oxidate
have potential to cause further toxicity and rustling sometimes the pedal turn a
little bit of brown colored and occasionally you would have some of the
fruits that are also resident however the retail rustling is usually below
five percent in our trials and so it’s not a marginal it’s not a big concern
so trying to try to apply the products under sunny dry days may help alleviate
such risks another big limitation I didn’t list here is the compatibility
with the scab control and all we are seeing the Northeast many of your folks
are all know that escape is a really intense especially when we have rapidly
shoot shoot growth and when a high percentage of those escape in Korea in a
college ESCO sports are mature and ready to be released in the in the same rain
rain event that will also trigger fire blight the reason I’m saying is not very
compatible it’s because the the the yeast strains used in the blossom
project is a very successful too many fungicide used for scab or for other
management especially those multi set site inhibitors these are very
susceptible so so it’s tricky to find to coordinate the
plots on track application together with the scab management so
further research need to help resolving this division but if you are organic
growers you don’t have this problem because you know you obviously don’t use
fungicide so that’s that’s a good situation for at least for organic
growers I have to mention that this trials a big trials in clerical is not
we didn’t even invent any of those the the similar child has been done in other
regions and such as in Michigan and in Oregon by George Sundance group and and
the king johnson’s group they all have proved that the project is very
effective in those sites and seems like recent years the I don’t know if there
are any West Ridge people here the the plus and protect the efficacy is a seems
to be rising a little bit based on our experience and not only in field trials
but also plus on projects commercially has also been used a lot in Europe and
being in Pacific Northwest by through communication with my colleagues in
different places so it is definitely a worthwhile products for you for you to
consider especially for for organic growers so I think
this is the today’s presentation and now we have a lot of time to or further
discussion of questions on there questions yes there are questions so
let’s see here Pete Nelson I think you may be answered
this in part but maybe not fully he asked what rate was used for each
product and the maximum label was at the maximum labeled rate and what kind of
adjuvants or conditioners we used so we use the strap at the 100 ppm and the
blossom protect used at the recommended strength as as the label label indicated
the oxidate we used in our child we use the 1% and 0.3% so we found that if you
use oxide by itself you can usually use a higher rate like 1% but if you use it
in combination with biological controls you can even use like 0.3 percent or 0.5
percent that would work equally well okay great thank you and must blossoms
be open for these materials to be effective for example and there is no
point in applying strap if you if you were still at paint I don’t want to be
the only person talking so because I have two other colleagues colleagues
go ahead come on it’s okay so yeah so strap is not gonna be able to penetrate
into open flowers so so yeah don’t apply any anytime before the flowers are are
open great and then have you tried brought
some protect and then oxidate after infection
well it says Vincent Kalani’s he’s asking can you put on oxidate once 24
hours after the infection after the brothel mean Bexon already infected
after after after we’re getting say Mary blight or whatever it’s all Oh like the
impacts an event yeah I you know for all the literature that I read and my
personal experience is I I believe the blossom product really need one at least
one day to to propagate and most of action from the this year’s the fire
blight symposium workshop internationally in in symposium I
learned from Ken Johnson slab is that it does not produce any and have microbial
stuff but it’s most of action is most most likely to block the the flora cut
you know under the the high Pantheon area that where the the neck nectaries
you know the necrosis so if you block the sash area seems like you know
bacteria can come in so so based on that limited knowledge I think if you have
already had an infection event and let’s assume the bacteria already went in
through the neck results into the ovary already then you apply blossom product
since it’s not documented to have any antimicrobial production and it’s not
documented to boost any host immunity so thus I would think it may not be gonna
be very effective as a rescue plan Thank You Steven said young planting
bloom over a wider timeframe and many of the newest scab resistant CDs do not
bloom nicely together I need a program that can be tank mixed
with petal full applications and subsequent cover sprays to deal with the
presence of bloom throughout the spring and summer that’s more of a comment than
a question but dang how many are Neil do you have any comments on that well
Stephen had asked earlier about whether you in a couple of people said can you
tank miss things and my answer was that you couldn’t put things like oxidate and
strap in a tank mix with a bacterial based bio control and you made the
comment I believe that Oriole Basilian and fungicides don’t work very well
together so I don’t know I I don’t I think that that’s a bit of a problem
myself trying to tank mix materials at least antibiotics if that’s what you’re
talking about Stephen whether ten mixings strapped as a to you to sort of
manage resistance he’s he’s got to type in a question well while he’s typing I
think I think another way I saw people are recommending is yes it is truly a
headache for those the young younger trees that can pull me into June or
later you know which is very difficult to control fire blight however if you
try to plant those trees instead of in a spring but in the in the fall people
said it’s tend to have like more or less of a problem having this later bloom you
know the in the into the summer and also many people recommend and remove those
flowers from the young trees because you know you don’t want the flower like the
hand and remove all the flowers but I know it’s probably very labor in
consuming but it is another way you can instead of putting down those chemicals
all the time but great and Stephen said comment that late bloom is more
difficult problem over regular blooms which I think you were addressing yes so
try to try to plant on trees in that in the fall instead of in the in the spring
and and see if there will be a little bit less of those late bloom then you
know in the spring okay so we have a couple more questions and I think we’re
just gonna run over a few minutes so we can answer them somebody asked what
about using a saw product like life guard prior to bloom or during bloom
with blossom protect and Vincent said it didn’t work in his trials but I’m
wondering if any of the three of you have some feedback on this so the
question is that do si ours work during bloom or prior to bloom as well as
blossom protect or with blossom protect yeah what about using an SAR product
like life god prior to bloom or during bloom with blossom protect so I don’t
know if Vincent is saying that that he didn’t if he had that combination and it
didn’t work or just that the si ours didn’t work I I think that from what
I’ve seen the sa ARS generally are not as effective as blossom protect awesome
protect seems to be the winner of the biologicals that are out there right now
and I’ve heard a loss of a research by I think Kerry Peter she has been using ser
inducers to manage shoot blight and seems to be working working well in
Pennsylvania but for blossom blight I think number one is the that the timing
is kind of fast and you have to sort of apply that earlier
so you know to me I feel like as they are will be more effective in the in
controlling should blight then and much any use on the blossom right I think
that’s a good good point Quine it takes I forget how long it
takes to really get this systemic acquired resistance reaction going but
it’s at least 48 hours and more than that in some cases right yeah I think I
think so I think you need to keep the plant some some time to induce those
those PR genes and and the source so to me I feel like ser can be applied later
hour after bloom to manage should blight and also let’s just like that I am
mentioning the presentation in Johnson use the ser inducers to paint the the
removed cankers to prevent the canker from forming but he did that mostly on
pears I think all right so you’ve got quite a few questions coming in actually
so if me Lord a dark one wants to answer any of them in writing we can do that
too so so I have a question here organic growers do you typically use sulfur and
or lime sulfur for scab how can we integrate these without killing off the
blossom protect rich critical fire blight times if possible I don’t think I
can Johnson published some papers a couple years ago about he first applied
a lime sulfur and fish oil as a sort of as a also like a thinning thing and then
then plus and perhaps afterwards but they’re always gonna be issues of
you know maybe they are not compatible all right and then can quaver
and double nickel be used a petal full and following cover sprays I’ll let you
go with that I’m typing corn okay Neil do have any comments you don’t need to
take yourself off mute Neil we didn’t have much luck applying double nickel
with our systems so I you know I really can’t comment on that so I think the
table on eco is a bacteria after pedal for I don’t think it’s really kind of do
too much on the plus implied management in indeed have the flowers after para
for indeed Harbor a lot of bacteria at the Pantheon region so maybe Cueva can
you know maybe knock down the knock down the pathogen population a little bit but
I haven’t done any work but so we didn’t include that into the this protocol but
maybe maybe the it will but I think the efficacy may not be that high Sir Thomas
chick asks do you have any comment on the use of a box today 2.0 versus gap
and how can this be combined with use for fire blight I think oxidate the
timing would be too tough to deal with on scab for the most part because it
basically it just impacts the microbes that it comes in direct contact with on
the planet’s surface and so the the process of scab infection is more
prolonged than the fire blight is so I think what would happen would be you
wouldn’t get very very good control most fungal disease
uses are tough to control with oxidate all right we have two more questions
left so one is is it recommended to use both strap and the people’s oxidate
perhaps using an application of strap and then wait a few days and then do the
BPM oxidate I think the timing is is everything what you really want to do is
blossom protect is is coat the flower and allow it to grow prior to or wynia
coming in contact and be able to grow so if you have residual you’re just not
gonna get a double benefit by knocking things down necessarily also we’re
thinking of the Blessed protect in and the oxidate is a sort of a replacement
strap the more you strip the more resistance you’re potentially going to
get and if you’re not really adding that much more benefit you are still putting
a Selective pressure to get resistant bugs so I I wouldn’t suggest doing all
of them at once or in the same year okay great and and
then last question is does blossom protect tolerate sulfur and Vincent said
yes it was compatible with the tank things do you have it guys have anything
to add to that okay all right okay there’s two
questions in the chat that I’ll just read out any use of oxidate once shoot
blight is showing to slow down spread I think I mean number wise you need to be
careful of the rustling if you use it for suit blood control like I said it
may you you may have rusted fruit if you if you do anything after pedal fall but
like when you are desperate you know when the you have tons of should blight
and you just have enough labor to remove them having some oxidate or copper spray
between rows can effectively kill the ooze on the surface so it may reduce the
should light spread between trees not within treats
you’re not gonna target any bacteria within those fruits but between trees
yeah yes but actually I mean I based on the oxygen is toxic to to fire blight
pathogen I would think but I actually I haven’t done any field test of for best
ink specifically did you say scab fungicides interact with blossom protect yeah yes yeah most of the fungicides
especially those newer ones are very toxic to the to the yeast because these
is it eukaryotes Fung guys are you know they are all the same same families so
they are you know that’s one one little big limitation to me that require you
for a conventional grower you know how do you time plus on protect and your
fungicide at the same time we need both at the same time to control both disease
how can you do that well I think you just hope sunny days next one is several
years ago a mix of Cueva and double was reported to have been effective
control in mid-atlantic is any more work been done with this combination I think
yeah there was there was about two or three years that Keith Yoder primarily
was doing work with that combination um and it works well I think though that
the work that Cara Cox if I were looking at shoot like right now I think that I
would focus on and slowing down growth in one way or another and using active
guard as a SAR promoter so and by slowing down growth using Apogee some
sort of Pro hexade ion calcium to to stop or slow shoot growth that’s that in
combination with an SAR is probably going to be the best the last one says
slightly off topic are there any sprays to reduce straggler
bloom either by making bloom more consolidated or just by burning off late
bloom without causing phytotoxic route seems unlikely I’m not aware of any that I think
anything that would you know like people use lime sulfur to take off early blooms
sometimes but the lime sulfur is gonna rusts it fruit that’s just the way it is
and then the very last one is why not refer to the compatibility chart for
blossom protect that’s a good idea okay great
okay and talking as suggestions there are some comments in the questions from
Peter Bert’s and Steven fibular that people may want to refer to and we will
send a copy of the Q&A to people and a copy of the recording so people can go
through those and with that I’m sorry Jana I I forgot to mention one more
thing is that the problem protect the oxygen is available to all states plus
on product is currently registered in intense days of the the US and many
states are are actually still not registered I actually contacted the
Westbridge company and and requested them to at least the register for all
the for all the new northeastern states but before that you you you need to be
understand that you know there there are limitations that you can still use it
before the registration okay great thank you and Quan if you can show the rest of
the slides that would be held oh yes and we’re just going to ask you some of
the same polling question what similar polling questions that we asked in the
beginning and Kevin if you could pop that up that would be wonderful
and let’s see is it showing up yeah week so yep you should see some questions I
think there’s four or five questions and if you could just take a moment to
answer those that would be wonderful and then I have a few more goodies to share
with you at the end and close up and just as before there’s no right and
wrong answer and also you need to choose an answer for each one of the questions
before it can be submitted and we really appreciate you taking the time to do
this it really helps us in making the tool boxes better for the future okay we’ll give it 15 more seconds and
then we’ll share the results okay so I will end the poll and share
the results there we go so we have lots of people who are very interested in in
using this approach and after this webinar out there more people who are
concerned about the difficulty of managing this and so this is good to
address and this team offered to follow up with people and find more information
and implementing and so if you were interested in that so I’m sure that they
will follow up with you so I just wanted to let you know that we have a couple of
things to announce we have an RFA for grants that is available right now and
the deadline for the grant applications is November 15 and the link to that is
there we also have another toolbox coming up in November and I didn’t
identifying and prioritizing range shifting for invasive plants and that’s
going to be a very interesting presentation and November 5th and then
we also have an online conference coming up at the end of this month and this is
kind of a rapid-fire five-minute presentations from people throughout the
Northeast actually I think Quan you’re on the list of presenters just to give
like short sharp ellipse about research it’s it’s fun it’s interesting and and
also recorded so please feel free to register and we can send you a copy as a
recording and if you can take in to the next slide that would be great
to find a colleague if you are looking for people such as Dan Anil and Quan to
work with please feel free to go to where I find a colleague site where
you’ll see people’s profiles and if you want to upload a profile for yourself
that you’re looking for collaborator in a certain aspect of IPM in the Northeast
you can freely go ahead and upload a profile and ok and there today’s webinar
will be posted under you can watch it as often as you like
and it takes us about a week to edit it and I put it up there so and I will send
you an email once that is ready and finally we would like to acknowledge our
funders this would not happen without our funders so the IPM Center is funded
by the National Institute for food and agriculture Kniffin and and then also
University of Massachusetts and the Connecticut agricultural our
experimentation state station sorry for mangling that fund Neal and Dominic on
in their work so so I appreciate all of you being present and the great
questions and the energy around on this I hope this is helpful
and you’ll hear from me with a copy of the recording when we have it ready next
week and feel free to follow up with any of the presenters and you will probably
hear from them if you signed up that you would like to be in contact as well so
enjoy the rest of your Wednesday and hope you enjoy this beautiful full
weather okay thank you bye bye

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